What Causes Pollakiuria and How Is It Treated

What Causes Pollakiuria?

Pollakiuria is a condition where children have excessive urine production. They may produce urine at least once every two hours or even several times per day. Most cases are caused by a genetic defect called polyurethmia congenita (PC). Other possible causes include infection, dehydration, and other medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and kidney disease.

Polyuria is defined as excessive urine production. A child with PC will usually have one or more of these signs:

Urinating frequently – especially when tired or hungry.

Urinating more than usual during the night.

Drinking water before going to bed.

Excessive thirst after drinking alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine.

Having frequent bowel movements (urine retention).

In some cases, the child may not have any of these signs. These children do not need treatment because they don’t suffer from PC. However, if the child suffers from other medical problems like diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), then treatment is needed to control their blood sugar levels. If there is no underlying problem with the kidneys, then medication can be prescribed to treat PC symptoms.

How Is Pollakiuria Treated?

Treatment for PC is usually not necessary unless there are other medical problems present. The following options are available for treating PC:

Thiazide drugs: These drugs help to control water and salt levels in the body. Thiazides are different from thiazide drugs as they do not have a thiazide structure.

Phenoxybenzamine: This drug reduces the blood pressure by relaxing the muscles of the blood vessels. It also helps in the treatment of high blood pressure.

Sodium chloride: This is a common ingredient found in salt and is used to treat dehydration.

Vitamin C: This reduces water loss from the body by helping the body to produce collagen. It is also important for the maintenance of bones, cartilage, teeth, gums, skin, and blood vessels.

How Often Should A Child Urinate In A Day?

It is okay if your child needs to urinate more than once in a day as there are no set rules on this. Some children may be able to hold their urine for more than 12 hours while others can’t wait for even 2 hours. If your child seems to be in pain while urinating or is complaining of pain in the abdomen, fever and other symptoms, then you need to take him to the doctor immediately.

What Does Polyuria And Pollakiuria Mean?

The term “polyuria” indicates excessive production of urine, which is produced by the kidneys. The nephrons in the kidneys filter waste material from the blood and produce urine. When the kidneys fail to perform their designated function, the patient suffers from polyuria.

Pollakiuria is the medical term that refers to an extremely strong urge to urinate at a frequent interval. This is common among children and is a condition that can be easily managed by the child’s parents and through proper medication, if necessary.

The disease is also called “provoked” or “unprovoked”. Unprovoked PC happens due to an underlying problem with the urinary system and requires treatment.

Provoked PC is caused by other factors such as fever, surgery, exercise, exposure to cold temperature, or emotional problems. This form of PC is temporary and disappears as soon as the provoking factor disappears.

Children often suffer from provoked PC and there is no need to worry unless it is accompanied by other symptoms.

Other symptoms to watch out for include blood in the urine (hematuria), burning sensation while passing urine (dysuria), frequent urinary tract infections, pain in the abdomen or loin (referred pain), weakness, fatigue, or lack of appetite.

These symptoms may indicate a more serious underlying medical condition and immediate medical attention is required.

Urine Tests

Urine tests are used to measure the amount of waste material in the urine, the concentration of waste material in the urine, and the appearance of the urine itself. A dipstick test is often used to quickly assess the general properties of the urine. Other tests such as flame ionization detectors can be used to measure the concentration of specific compounds in the urine.

Many conditions such as diabetes, kidney problems, or a combination of water and salt intake can influence the concentration of waste material in the urine.

Most of the tests are non-invasive and do not involve any complex procedures. Nevertheless, some tests such as a Cystoscopy or MRI may be required in serious cases.

Genetics And PC

Although genetics may play some part in how your child develops PC, most cases of this condition are triggered by diet or lifestyle factors. Children are more prone to developing this condition because their bladders are still developing and evolving. This means that the muscles and nerves in the bladder may not be fully developed or mature.

Parents need to ensure that they monitor their children for signs of this condition (especially at night when the child is asleep) as frequent toilet trips may be necessary. This can also help parents become aware of any underlying medical condition that may be causing the problem.

Children with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes have been found to suffer from PC more often than the general population. This condition is known to affect approximately 40% of children suffering from type 1 diabetes.

Other factors that may increase your child’s risk of developing this condition include:

* Family history of polyuria, diabetes, or kidney disease.

* Abnormalities in development of the genitourinary tract (genital organs and urinary system) during fetal growth.

* Failure of the kidneys to completely develop.

* Neurological disorders or hormone problems.

* Bladder outflow obstruction (e.g. enlarged prostate) in males.

Treatment And Prevention

Once the disease has developed there isn’t a known cure for it yet. However, steps can be taken to manage the condition by ensuring that the patient is well hydrated and does not become dehydrated.

Patients have to constantly drink fluids such as water, milk or fruit juice and ensure that they urinate frequently to keep their urine output at acceptable levels.

Strict attention to diet is also important as a healthy diet can help regulate the amount of waste the body eliminates through the kidneys. High protein meals and sugary foods should be avoided as these cause a greater workload on the kidneys.

Keeping hydrated and ensuring regular urination are essential to the management of this condition. Your physician may also prescribe medication to help manage the condition. Medications may either be diuretics, which help the patient pass more urine or anti-anxiety drugs, which help relax the bladder muscles and increase bladder capacity.

If treatment is started early and managed properly, most patients are able to lead relatively normal lives and are not at risk of serious complications due to this condition.

Sources & references used in this article:

Capillaria plica (syn. Pearsonema plica) infection in a dog with chronic pollakiuria: challenges in the diagnosis and treatment by W Basso, Z Spänhauer, S Arnold, P Deplazes – Parasitology international, 2014 – Elsevier

Nocturnal pollakiuria is a symptom of obstructive sleep apnea by J Krieger, C Petiau, E Sforza, C Delanoë… – Urologia …, 1993 – karger.com

TRK-380, a novel selective human β3-adrenoceptor agonist, ameliorates formalin-induced pollakiuria in rats and carbachol-induced bladder contraction in dogs by S Kanie, A Otsuka, S Yoshikawa, R Kobayashi, S Itaba… – Urology, 2013 – Elsevier

Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of short-term amitriptyline administration for treatment of acute, nonobstructive, idiopathic lower urinary tract disease in cats by JM Kruger, TS Conway, JB Kaneene… – Journal of the …, 2003 – Am Vet Med Assoc

Daily salt intake is an independent risk factor for pollakiuria and nocturia by T Matsuo, Y Miyata, H Sakai – International Journal of Urology, 2017 – Wiley Online Library

Origin of Pain in Interstitial Cystitis: Effect of Ultrasound Treatment on the Concomitant Levator ani Spasm Syndrome by HG Lilius, KJ Oravisto, EJ Valtonen – Scandinavian journal of …, 1973 – Taylor & Francis