Retinaculum

Retinaculum: A word with many meanings. Its origin is from Latin meaning “to turn” or “turning”. Retinaculum means turning point. It refers to the part of the eye where it turns towards light. It’s a common medical term used to refer to the retina, which contains cells called rods and cones that convert light into electrical signals that are sent through nerves to other parts of your brain.

The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is responsible for converting light into nerve impulses. When the RPE becomes damaged, vision may become blurry or even lose altogether. There are several types of retinitis pigmentosa including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), age-related cataracts and glaucoma.

In AMD, the RPE gradually deteriorates over time until it completely fails. In cataracts, the lens inside the eye gradually loses its protective coating and begins to leak fluid into surrounding tissues. Eventually, these tissues begin to die and eventually the whole eye falls out of place causing blindness. Glaucoma occurs when there is too much pressure built up in the eyes’ optic nerve due to an increased production of tears.

Retinaculum is a common term used when referring to the so-called “pulleys” of tendons and ligaments that create movement in the body. In the wrist, for example, it is referred to as the flexible bands like the superficial transverse metacarpal ligament, or the deeper flexor retinaculum. It connects the radius to the carpals. The retinaculum is also referred to the supraspinatus tendon, a rotator cuff muscle that attaches the arm to the shoulder.

These tendons and ligaments in the wrist allow for movement in multiple directions, including flexing and extending. The flexor retinaculum is in a state of permanent contraction and works to keep the fingers curved around an object or make it possible to grab something.

Knowledge about Retinaculum is a common subject in medical and biology. Several types of retinaculum are used to keep the eye in place. The most familiar one is the sclera, or white of the eye. This is the tough, protective casing that surrounds the whole eyeball.

It is filled with a jelly-like substance called vitreous humor that gives the eye its round shape.

Retinaculum is located on the inside of the eye and it is made of thin, highly sensitive cells that make vision possible. The retinal cells absorb light that comes into the eye and converts it into nerve signals that are sent to the brain. The retina can be divided into two sections: the macula and the periphery. The macula is the center of the retina and has a high concentration of cones, which are responsible for sharp, clear vision.

The periphery contains mostly rods, which are responsible for peripheral and night vision.

The Retinaculum keeps the retina in place and keeps it from being pulled or distorted by the internal eye muscles. It is also makes it possible for certain parts of the retina to receive more or less light, depending on where it is located and how much it is exposed. This layer of the retina contains nerve fibers that connect it to the brain, allowing you to “see”.

Sources & references used in this article:

Acute rupture of the peroneal retinaculum. by WR Eckert, EA Davis Jr – The Journal of Bone and Joint surgery …, 1976 – europepmc.org

Anatomy of the flexor retinaculum by TK Cobb, BK Dalley, RH Posteraro, RC Lewis – The Journal of hand …, 1993 – Elsevier

Anatomy of the knee joint lateral retinaculum by JP FULKERSON, HR GOSSLING – Clinical Orthopaedics and …, 1980 – journals.lww.com

Reconstruction of pulleys employing extensor retinaculum by GD Lister – The Journal of Hand Surgery, 1979 – Elsevier

The extensor retinaculum of the wrist by J Taleisnik, RH Gelberman, BW Miller… – Journal of Hand …, 1984 – jhandsurg.org

Scapholunate ligament reconstruction using a bone-retinaculum-bone autograft by APC Weiss – The Journal of hand surgery, 1998 – Elsevier