Pulmonary Valve Location:
The Pulmonic valve is located at the right side of the heart. It is a small blood vessel which carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of body through the chest cavity. The pulmonary artery passes through it and then branches out into several smaller arteries.
These are called pulmonary veins or pulmonary vessels. The pulmonary veins carry blood to various parts of the body such as the legs, feet, hands, face and other vital organs. When there is no room left in these vessels for all the blood that needs to go out, some of it flows back into the lungs where it is reabsorbed by tissues. This process helps keep your body’s temperature balanced.
The Pulmonic valve is part of the atrioventricular (AV) node, which is a group of nerves that originate in the brain stem and branch off into many different areas throughout the body. The AV node controls many functions including heart rate, breathing and circulation. When there is blockage in one or more of these branches, symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue and even fainting.
If the blockage is severe, chest pain or even heart failure may occur.
There are two main types of blockages that can occur in the body. The first is a partial blockage which can be treated with medication. The second is an occlusion which means the blood flow has been completely stopped.
When this happens, a mechanical assist device known as an angioplasty must be placed to restore the blood flow to normal.
There are many types of procedures that can be done to improve the blood flow to the lungs. This is necessary because the body needs a fully functioning heart in order to survive. There are several different types of surgeries that have a good success rate depending on the type and the location of the blockage.
The first type is called an angioplasty, which involves an interventional cardiologist using a flexible tube called a catheter to open up a blocked artery. The second type is called a coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as a CABG. This procedure involves taking a healthy artery or vein from another part of the patient’s body and using it to create a path around the blockage in the coronary artery.
The Pulmonic valve is located on the right side of the heart where blood enters into the tiny vessels called pulmonary arteries. The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs where it becomes oxygenated and then returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins. When the blood enters the heart, it passes through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery.
It then goes to the lungs where it picks up oxygen and returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins.
A variety of diseases can lead to some narrowing of the vessels, causing a decrease in blood flow or an obstruction which completely prevents blood flow. Some of the most common causes are high blood pressure, smoking, obesity and stress. Many people display no symptoms at all of the heart disease until a major heart event or sudden cardiac arrest occurs.
In order to treat the narrowing of the vessels, a process called angioplasty can be used. In this procedure, a special balloon catheter is passed into the area of blockage via a blood vessel in the leg or arm. The balloon is then inflated to widen the passage so that the blood can flow more freely.
This procedure can often be done using only local anesthesia but sometimes general anesthesia is needed. Sutures are not necessary afterward.
Another treatment option for people with coronary heart disease is a coronary artery bypass, also known as a CABG. In this procedure, a healthy artery or vein from another part of the body is harvested and used to create a path around the blockage in the coronary artery. Traditionally, the procedure involved making an incision in the chest and stopping the heart from beating in order to access the blood vessels.
More recently, a new surgical approach called a minimally invasive bypass, or mini-CABG has become popular. In this procedure, the surgeon uses special instruments and a small video camera to see inside the chest. Using small incisions in the skin, the surgeon passes thin tubes called catheters into the vessels leading to the heart. A tube is then passed into the aorta, the largest blood vessel in the body. A small incision is made in the aorta and a device called a balloon pump is used to expand and then position the artery outside of the aorta. Once in place, the new graft vessel can be connected to the aorta and the other end to the coronary artery that needs to be bypassed. Through this procedure, the heart is never stopped and the surgeon has much greater access to all parts of the coronary artery. This allows for a wider choice of healthy tissue and means less damage to healthy blood vessels in the body. Once the new blood vessel is connected, the balloon pump is removed and the incision in the aorta is closed with stitches or glue.
Coronary angioplasty and CABG are usually successful in improving blood flow to the heart and relieving chest pain. However, complications can sometimes occur and patients who have undergone either procedure may experience some type of long-term heart damage. For this reason, people who have had either procedure are often advised to follow a healthy lifestyle which involves not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol consumption and engaging in regular exercise.
Sources & references used in this article:
Transcatheter laser-assisted balloon pulmonary valve dilation in pulmonic valve atresia by SA Qureshi, E Rosenthal, M Tynan, R Anjos… – American Journal of …, 1991 – ajconline.org
Echocardiographic patterns of pulmonic valve motion with pulmonary hypertension by AE WEYMAN, JC DILLON, H Feigenbaum, S Chang – Circulation, 1974 – Am Heart Assoc
Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonic valve stenosis in the adult by CJ Pepine, IH Gessner, RL Feldman – American Journal of …, 1982 – ajconline.org
Quadricuspid semilunar valve by LE Hurwitz, WC Roberts – American Journal of Cardiology, 1973 – ajconline.org
Isolated pulmonic valve endocarditis in healthy hearts: a case report and review of the literature. by FB Ramadan, DS Beanlands… – The Canadian journal of …, 2000 – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Isolated incompetence of the pulmonic valve by BENO PRICE – Circulation, 1961 – Am Heart Assoc
Isolated pulmonic valve infective endocarditis: a persistent challenge by N Hamza, J Ortiz, RA Bonomo – Infection, 2004 – Springer