Pampiniform Plexus Location:
The pampiniform plexus is located at the base of the bladder behind the urethra. It is a small muscle which attaches to the lower part of the bladder wall. There are two types of plexuses: Type I and type II. Type I plexuses are found in men and women, while type II plexuses are found only in females. They have different functions.
Type I plexuses are located in the bladder near the prostate gland. These muscles relax when urine flow stops and they allow urine to drain out of the body. When these muscles contract, it causes a feeling of fullness in your abdomen (abdominal distension). This is due to pressure from the urinary tract against the bladder walls.
When there is no pressure on the bladder walls, then you will feel empty or lack of sensation in your abdomen. You may experience a burning sensation during urination. If you do not relieve this pressure, then you will develop pain in your abdomen. This condition is called pudendal neuralgia (PNH) or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POCT).
Type II plexuses are located in the pelvic floor muscles. These muscles are responsible for controlling the position of the pelvis when sitting or lying down. They also control the movement of the genitals during urination. When these muscles contract, the bladder and urethra are pushed upward. This prevents urine from leaking out.
These small muscles along with the pelvic floor muscles can also prevent the bladder from fully emptying. As a result, more urine is left in the bladder. This can cause you to feel like you have to go more often. However, you do not completely empty your bladder each time you go to the toilet.
PNH is also caused when this muscle contracts. The bladder is pulled up and urine leaks backward into the ureters. As a result, the patient experiences pain in their abdomen or pelvis. This can be quite painful and may cause nausea and vomiting.
In rare cases, PNH can cause blood clots to form in the ureters. These clots become loose and travel to the kidneys, where they can block the normal flow of urine. A blocked kidney will not be able to remove waste and extra fluid from the body.
Pampiniform plexus pain is a condition that affects both men and women. It is a type of irritable pelvic pain syndrome (PPPS). Pampiniform plexus pain can be caused by urinary tract infection, sexual activity, anxiety, menstruation, or exercise.
PNH is a rare condition. It affects 1 out of 20,000 people. PNH is not a serious condition unless complications develop. PNH requires immediate medical attention. If not treated, it can lead to permanent changes in the nervous system or even death.
The pampiniform plexus is a small bundle of nerves and blood vessels in the lower abdomen (pelvis). The plexus is located in the pelvic floor muscles. It helps control bladder function by sending signals to the brain.
The pelvic floor muscles support the pelvic organs like the intestines, rectum, and urinary bladder. The plexus is a type of nervous plexus (plexus=bundle). The other type is the autonomic plexus (plexus=bundle). The autonomic plexus controls involuntary body functions like heart rate and gut activity.
The plexus contains two types of nerve fibers. These are the sensory fibers and the motor fibers. The sensory nerves respond to changes in bladder pressure, stretching, or fullness. They also send information to the brain about temperature of the urine, if it is acidic or basic (alkaline), and the texture (clotting) of the urine.
The motor fibers control muscles that help hold in urine. They also signal the sphincter muscles to open and close. The plexus also contains nerve fibers that release pain-causing chemicals, like serotonin and substance P. This may cause a sharp, burning pain in the lower abdomen when irritated.
The main function of the plexus is to help control urination and prevent leaking of urine. It sends signals to the brain when the bladder is full or needs to be emptied. It also detects changes in the texture and temperature of urine.
The plexus may become irritated and send an abnormal signal to the brain. The brain may then tell the bladder muscles to contract, or tighten up. This causes a sharp pain in the pelvis or lower back (hitting the pelvis).
PNH is different for each person. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sudden sharp pain. The plexus may become irritated for many reasons. Common causes of irritation are:
It is not known why the plexus becomes irritated in PNH. The condition may be caused by an injury or trauma to the pelvis, such as a car accident. It may also be caused by a genetic mutation. Some people may be born with a defect in their nerves. This defect weakens and irritates the plexus over time.
PNH is diagnosed based on a physical exam and medical history.
Treatment for PNH is aimed at controlling urinary complaints. This may include taking pain medication and stress reduction techniques. Some people may benefit by using a low-dose tricyclic antidepressant or an anticonvulsant. These drugs help prevent nerve signals from affecting bladder activity.
More severe cases of PNH may require surgical treatment, such as nerve transfer surgery or implantation of a neurostimulator. In nerve transfer surgery, healthy nerve fibers are taken from the hip or leg and transferred to the pelvic plexus. This promotes healing of the plexus. In a neurostimulator procedure, an electrode is surgically placed near the plexus. The electrode emits electrical signals that block the pain signals to the brain.
Sources & references used in this article:
Anatomy of the spermatic venous plexus (pampiniform plexus) in men with and without varicocele: intraoperative venographic study by MM Wishahi – The Journal of urology, 1992 – auajournals.org
Spontaneous thrombosis of the pampiniform plexus by L Hashimoto, B Vibeto – Scandinavian journal of urology and …, 2006 – Taylor & Francis
Steroid production by the bovine testis and steroid transfer across the pampiniform plexus by RP Amann, VK Ganjam – Biology of Reproduction, 1976 – academic.oup.com
Efficiency of the countercurrent transfer of heat and 133Xenon between the pampiniform plexus and testicular artery of the bull under in‐vitro conditions by HG SØRENSEN, J Lambrechtsen… – … journal of andrology, 1991 – Wiley Online Library
Dynamics of venous-arterial testosterone transfer in the pampiniform plexus of the rat by MJ FREE, RA JAFFE – Endocrinology, 1975 – academic.oup.com
Correlation between semen parameters and retrograde flow into the pampiniform plexus before and after varicocelectomy by E Segenreich, SR Israilov, J Shmueli, E Niv… – European …, 1997 – karger.com
Microvascular architecture of the pampiniform plexus‐testicular artery system in the rat: A scanning electron microscope study of corrosion casts by A Ohtsuka – American journal of anatomy, 1984 – Wiley Online Library