Muscular Synonyms: Muscles, Muscle, Muscles, Muscle, Muscle, Muscles.
The word “muscle” is derived from the Latin musculus which means “of or relating to a muscle”. The word was first used in the 16th century to refer to muscles of animals such as horses and oxen.
However it didn’t take long before it started being applied to human beings too.
In fact the word “muscle” was originally used to mean “a person with a large amount of muscle”, but over time it came to be used in other ways, most notably referring to a man’s body. There are many different types of muscles, each with its own function.
For example there is the type of muscle that holds your arms up while you’re standing and another type that supports your weight when you walk around. Another type of muscle is found in your legs and is responsible for running fast. Other types of muscles include those that support organs like the heart, lungs, liver and kidneys. Each type of muscle has specific functions that make them useful for certain activities.
There are two main types of muscles – slow twitch (slow contractile) and fast twitch (fast contracting). Slow twitch muscles have a higher endurance than their faster counterparts so they provide greater resistance to fatigue during exercise.
Fast twitch muscles are better for producing fast bursts of speed and strength.
Muscles are flexible organs that move bones at joints. They are present all over the body.
They are attached to bones by a tough tissue called tendon. Muscles contract (get shorter) to move bones at joints.
There are more than 600 named muscles in the human body, located all over the body. Muscle tissue is very strong.
It can be used to move heavy objects or perform a lot of work in a short space of time.
The Muscular System is a group of organs that includes muscles and the nerves that tell them what to do. In addition there are two other types of tissues: connective tissue and epithelial tissue.
The muscular system is connected to the integumentary system because the skin holds it in place. It also connects to the skeletal system because the skeleton carries it around. It also connects to the nervous system because the nervous system controls it.
The muscular system does several things. It helps you move, it provides shape and form to your body and it produces heat.
If you were lying in bed doing nothing, your muscles would still be active, although at a much slower rate. Even if you are sitting still right now, you are using muscles to hold your posture. This use of muscles is called “basal level activity”.
Muscular System Diseases
The muscular system is very strong and rarely has any diseases, but three of the most common are muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis and dermatomyositis.
Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease that weakens muscles over time. It can affect people of any age, but it mainly affects boys between the ages of four and twelve.
This disease causes the muscles to lose their strength and get smaller. There are many types of muscular dystrophy, but the outcome is always the same: weakness, gradual loss of muscle and premature death.
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that causes weakness of muscles. This disease destroys the membrane of the muscle fiber.
It mainly affects girls and women most often between the ages of 20 and 50. Like muscular dystrophy, it gets worse over time. This disease is incurable.
Dermatomyositis mainly affects children and young adults. It causes the muscles to be red and look swollen.
This disease can lead to a decrease in muscle mass and weakness. It also causes the muscles to break down, which leads to a decreased ability to move parts of the body. The cause of this disease is unknown, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disease like myasthenia gravis. There is no cure, but it can be managed with steroids and other immune-suppressing drugs.
The Muscular System at Glance
Anatomy & Physiology I
Muscles are bundles of tissue that enable movement. There are three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth and cardiac.
Skeletal muscle makes up most of the muscles in the body. It is attached to bones by connective tissue and it causes movement at the joint by pulling on the bones.
These muscles need a constant supply of oxygen brought to them by the blood stream in order to work properly. Skeletal muscles can be voluntary, which are controlled by the brain, or involuntary, which are activated by the spinal cord. Voluntary skeletal muscles allow you to move your body at will, while involuntary work automatically.
Smooth muscle tissue main function is to cause involuntary movement in the body. It is found lining the walls of blood vessels and organs such as the stomach and intestines.
It is also found in the walls of the uterus. The muscle cells in the walls of blood vessels and organs are called visceral muscles. The muscle cells that line the uterus are called uterine muscles. In both cases, the muscles cause the organ or vessel to move. For example, the smooth muscle lining the walls of blood vessels causes them to narrow or widen, controlling the flow of blood.
Smooth muscles cells are not under our conscious control, they work automatically. Visceral muscles are controlled by the part of the brain that controls our autonomic nervous system.
This part of the brain is called the autonomic nervous system and is further divided into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system, which control the visceral muscles. Sympathetic activates the muscle and causes it to work, while parasympathetic causes it to relax.
The third type of smooth muscles are uterine muscles in the uterus.
Sources & references used in this article:
Muscular contraction. by AF Huxley – The Journal of physiology, 1974 – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
The muscular dystrophies by AEH Emery – The Lancet, 2002 – Elsevier
The mechanism of muscular contraction by HE Huxley – Science, 1969 – JSTOR
Spinal muscular atrophy by AEH Emery, F Muntoni, RCM Quinlivan – 2015 – OUP Oxford
Heredofamilial juvenile muscular atrophy simulating muscular dystrophy by MR Lunn, CH Wang – The Lancet, 2008 – Elsevier
Muscular dystrophies by E Kugelberg, L Welander – AMA Archives of Neurology & …, 1956 – jamanetwork.com
Molecular basis of muscular dystrophies by E Mercuri, F Muntoni – The Lancet, 2013 – Elsevier
The dynamics of muscular contraction by RD Cohn, KP Campbell – Muscle & nerve, 2000 – Wiley Online Library
Mechanisms of exercise-induced delayed onset muscular soreness: a brief review. by HS Gasser, AV Hill – Proceedings of the Royal Society of …, 1924 – royalsocietypublishing.org