Lesser saphenous vein

Lesser saphenous vein (LSV) is a common type of blood vessel in the body. They are found throughout the body including heart, lungs, kidneys, liver and spleen. LSVs have many functions such as oxygen transport through capillaries to tissues and blood flow. However they do not carry any nutrients or waste products from the tissues back to the circulation.

The smaller the veins, the less likely they will rupture. When they do rupture, it usually results in death due to massive hemorrhage within minutes.

LSVs are one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac arrest.

In rare cases, an LSV may become infected with bacteria or fungi causing a life threatening infection called septic shock. Severe infections caused by these organisms require immediate medical attention and often result in death if left untreated.

There are two types of LSV: venous and arterial. Venous LSVs are located deep inside the body near major arteries.

These veins supply blood to all parts of the body except the brain and spinal cord. There are three main types of venous veins: superficial, intermediate and deep.

Athletes have a higher risk for developing venous leg ulcers because their legs tend to move around during exercise. This constant rubbing puts pressure on veins in the leg and can cause them to weaken and break.

This condition is known as venous insufficiency.

Athletes also have another reason for developing leg ulcers: dehydration. During exercise, athletes sweat heavily causing them to lose a lot of water and minerals.

If an athlete does not replenish these fluids, it can lead to dehydration and hypovolemic shock.

In addition, after intense exercise, the body continues to sweat. This continued sweating can lead to the loss of more water and minerals causing dehydration.

This cycle can be repeated multiple times during the course of a single workout.

It is very important for the athlete to drink water after they finish their activity because their body needs to replenish the fluids they lost. This is especially true in warm weather.

The well-prepared athlete will make sure to have a water bottle with them before they start their activity and will drink from it at regular intervals during their workout.

Older people who have peripheral artery disease experience similar symptoms as that of athletes who develop venous leg ulcers. However in this case, the body is not getting enough blood to the legs.

This leads to a lack of oxygen in the area and eventually gangrene develops.

A peripheral artery disease can cause a person to experience extreme pain, especially during physical activity. At rest, the pain is manageable but during walking or other forms of physical activity, the pain becomes very severe.

The skin around the ankle will become pale due to lack of oxygenated blood.

Arterial leg ulcers develop when arterial blood vessels in the leg become damaged. The most common cause for this condition is atherosclerosis, a narrowing of the artery due to plaque buildup.

Other risk factors for developing arterial leg ulcers include: smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes.

The pain from an arterial leg ulcer is very severe and it can be accompanied by tingling or loss of feeling in the foot.

Treatments for leg ulcers vary and are determined by the type of ulcer.

A compression stocking or boot can help decrease the pain and swelling in a venous leg ulcer. In addition, patients with venous leg ulcers should avoid walking or standing for long periods of time to prevent the ulcer from getting worse.

A doctor may recommend surgery or prescribe medicine to help treat the condition.

The goal of treating an arterial leg ulcer is to lower the pressure in the leg. This can be done by elevating the legs and using elastic bandages to wrap them.

The doctor may also suggest using a foam mattress or other supportive devices.

Most leg ulcers do not cause noticeable damage to the skin because they are often superficial. However, if an ulcer causes a notable loss of skin, the doctor will most likely recommend surgical removal.

The ulcer should then heal with minimal scaring or discoloration.

Treating leg ulcers is absolutely necessary to avoid further complications. In addition to treating the ulcer, doctors also treat any underlying conditions that may have caused it.

In most cases, leg ulcers are minor and heal on their own with proper treatment. If the ulcer keeps coming back or bleeding occurs, medical assistance is necessary.

Complications may arise if a person fails to seek treatment for their ulcer. For example, an untreated venous leg ulcer may lead to serious tissue death called necrosis.

If this occurs, surgery may be needed to remove the dead tissue. Severe arterial ulcers can also lead to gangrene and possible amputation of the affected limb.

To prevent leg ulcers from getting worse, it is important to wear proper footwear and use an ankle support. In addition, patients are also encouraged to take a walk every once in awhile to keep the blood flowing.

To help prevent arterial disease, patients should maintain a healthy weight, eat a balanced diet and exercise regularly.

The most common venous disorders are leg and ankle swelling. The most common arterial disorders are blocked arteries and poor blood circulation.

The feet are commonly injured when the heel bone (calcaneus) is exposed when the skin breaks down ulcerates or is damaged by a pressure sore (decubitus ulcer). Wounds of the feet may become infected when exposed to bacteria on the ground or other environmental sources.

However, the leg can also be protected by wearing proper footwear such as shoes or boots. Elevating the foot can also help improve blood flow.

In addition, patients can also lower their risk for ulcers by keeping a healthy weight and not smoking.

A venous leg ulcer is an open sore located in either the foot or ankle. This condition occurs due to a problem with the patient’s veins, which causes the blood to flow backward.

As a result, the veins become engorged with blood and increase in size. The increased pressure of the blood against the surrounding walls can cause veins to stretch beyond their normal capacity and weaken. As a result, they become more susceptible to tearing and bursting.

Pain is an important signal of bodily injury. In response, the body naturally provides several mechanisms for protective and healing functions.

Prolonged pain causes the nervous system to counteract the pain signals with its own natural painkillers, known as endorphins.

The exact cause of the pain associated with a leg ulcer is unknown. The most common theory suggests that nerve endings in the leg are exposed to a variety of biochemicals such as epinephrine or norepinephrine.

These chemicals are released in response to injury or infection. Although these chemicals are necessary for the healing process, they also cause pain at their site of release.

The pain from a leg ulcer can be treated with a combination of actions. These include the use of non-prescription pain relievers such as Tylenol and the topical application of over-the-counter pain creams such as Camphophenique and Icy Hot.

Other treatments include the prescription painkillers known as NSAIDs, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These drugs work by blocking the body’s production of chemicals that cause pain and swelling and are commonly used to treat the pain of a leg ulcer.

In addition, when ulcers occur in the nerve-poor areas of the legs, such as the ankles and feet, topical anesthetics such as Lidocaine can be applied to reduce the painful sensations.

Topical anesthetics are also available in the form of sprays that can numb the area and provide immediate pain relief.

A leg ulcer that is infected with bacteria, such as “Staphylococcus aureus,” may be treated with antibiotics. Other less common causes of infection, such as “Clostridium” and “Eikenella corrodens,” can also be treated with specific antibiotics.

When the pain is relieved, patients are encouraged to take off their shoes and socks for several hours daily to improve the blood flow to the foot. They should elevate the leg while resting to improve blood flow as well.

Other steps can help promote healing of the ulcer, including keeping the area clean and applying gauze and a bandage to soak up any pus or fluid that might come out of the wound. If the wound becomes red, swollen, warm to touch or painful, patients should contact their doctor immediately because these can be signs of infection.

In addition, if the edges of the wound and skin around it appear to grow together or join together, the patient should also contact their doctor because this can be a sign of an ulcer that has become so deep that it is affecting healthy tissue.

A leg ulcer can be caused by a condition called arterial insufficiency. Normally, blood is supplied to the feet through arteries in the legs.

Sources & references used in this article:

Accompanying arteries of the lesser saphenous vein and sural nerve: anatomic study and its clinical applications. by H Nakajima, N Imanishi, S Fukuzumi… – Plastic and …, 1999 – europepmc.org

Endovenous laser treatment of the lesser saphenous vein with a 940‐nm diode laser: early results by TM Proebstle, D Gül, A Kargl, J Knop – Dermatologic surgery, 2003 – Wiley Online Library

Venous drainage of the distally based lesser saphenous-sural veno-neuroadipofascial pedicled fasciocutaneous flap: a radiographic perfusion study. by N Imanishi, H Nakajima, S Fukuzumi… – Plastic and reconstructive …, 1999 – europepmc.org

The lesser saphenous vein: an underappreciated source of autogenous vein by BB Chang, PSK Paty, DM Shah, RP Leather – Journal of vascular surgery, 1992 – Elsevier