Kidney Dysplasia

Kidney Dysplasia: What Is It?

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located at the top of your body. They filter waste products from your blood and excrete them out through urine. The kidneys work well when there is enough fluid in the blood vessels supplying the organ (a condition called osmotic balance). When there isn’t enough fluid in the blood vessels, or if the kidneys don’t have enough room to move around, they will swell up.

When a kidney becomes enlarged because of too much water, it can no longer function properly. If the swelling is not treated promptly with medication, death may occur due to other causes such as infection or bleeding into other parts of the body.

Types Of Kidney Dysplasia

There are several types of kidney dysplasia. These include:

Bilateral Multicystic Nephropathy – A type of kidney failure where one kidney is larger than the other. This is caused by mutations in certain genes that cause abnormal cell growth. Most cases affect only one side of the kidneys, but some cases can affect both sides.

Unilateral Multicystic Dysplasia – This affects only one side of the kidneys. The cysts involved are not always of a uniform size or shape.

Bilateral Simple Dimethylglycine Amino Transferase Deficiency (BDDATD) – This is caused by a defect in an enzyme that causes waste materials to build up in the blood. Sometimes, this causes the kidneys to retain too much water and swell up.

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) – This is the most common cause of kidney failure in children. It causes solidified patches to develop inside the organs, which can also cause swelling and an inability to properly filter waste from blood.

Bilateral Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease (ARPKD) – This is caused by a rare inherited genetic mutation that stops one type of cells from developing.

Sources & references used in this article:

Multicystic kidney dysplasia: a prospective study on the natural history of the affected and the contralateral kidney by C Heymans, L Breysem, W Proesmans – European journal of pediatrics, 1998 – Springer

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