Internal iliac artery (Hypogastric artery)
The Hypogastric artery is located at the base of the stomach, it supplies nutrients to the small intestine. The Hypogastric artery carries food from your digestive system into your large intestine. The hypogastrium is a muscular tube which connects with the stomach through a narrow passage called the pyloric ring. The pylorus is a band of muscle surrounding the opening of the stomach. When food passes through the pylorium, it enters the stomach and exits through a valve called the oesophagus.
The Hypogastric artery carries blood from your liver to your small intestine. Blood flows in both directions along this branch of the Hypogastric artery. The Hypogastric artery contains two main branches: the left and right upper segments. Both these branches are connected to other arteries such as the hepatic vein, pulmonary veins, and veins in the feet.
In some cases, when there is damage or obstruction of one of these major blood vessels, the Hypogastric artery becomes smaller than normal. This condition is known as hypoplastic left heart syndrome (LHS). When this happens, the left upper segment of the artery is too small to provide the blood supply necessary for the lungs and upper body. This condition causes a heart defect in which the left side of the heart does not pump enough blood to the body.
The left upper segment of the artery is also called the aorta ascendens. The aortic arch is the division between the two upper and two lower parts of the artery. It is located in the upper part of the chest. The aortic arch is also called the brachiocephalic artery.
The aortic arch supplies blood to the head, arms, and parts of the chest, back, and stomach. It runs in front of and slightly above the trachea (windpipe). It includes two pairs of arteries: one pair on the right side and one pair on the left side.
The aortic arch is made of three cusp-shaped rings. The two pairs of arteries branch off the rings, which are also called the aortic arches. These branches include:
The brachiocephalic artery, which supplies the arm and neck.
The superior thyroid arteries, which supply the tongue, mouth, and ear.
The Terminal Ilesian Artery that runs inside the front of the trachea.
The aortic arch and branches provide nutrients not only to the upper part of the body but also to the back of the head, part of the chest, and the inner organs.
During fetal development, cells in the wall of the aortic arches are determined to become arteries. These cells are arranged in a specific sequence. From inside to outside, the cell layers are:
Endothelium – Forms the lining of the blood vessels.
Mesothelium – Forms the lining of parts of the heart and other organs.
Muscle layer – Forms smooth muscle, which is found in parts of the heart and other organs.
Arterial tunica media – Forms the thickest part of the arteries.
Arterial tunica adventitia – Forms the thin outer layer of the arteries.
During development, if a blood vessel does not form correctly, a birth defect known as a vascular ring is formed. A vascular ring is a set of blood vessels that are too close to each other. This can cause a problem with the normal development of other parts of the body. The abnormal development can cause organs or other tissues to be trapped in the ring.
A vascular ring might also restrict blood flow through the vessels. This can cause poor growth in organs or tissues on one side of the ring. Retaining a part of the vessels also may cause reduced blood flow through an organ or tissue.
When a vascular ring affects the aortic arches, it is known as a vascular ring syndrome. The most common types of vascular ring syndrome involve the aortic arches. These include:
duplication of the common carotid arteries, in which another artery forms parallel to these arteries, located on either side of the neck just below the ear. This is also known as a double artery.
This is the most common type of vascular ring syndrome. It is usually not diagnosed until adulthood, when people begin to experience problems with high blood pressure. It can also cause headaches from increased blood flow to the brain.
It is important that adults with this condition get routine check-ups by a healthcare provider. This is because this syndrome can cause aneurysms and strokes if it affects the arteries in the brain.
Preemies born with this condition require close monitoring and sometimes surgery.
Aortic arch abnormalities, such as the absence of the brachiocephalic artery or ductus arteriosus, in which there is no artery for the blood to leave through.
This condition is rare and usually diagnosed at birth. People with this condition are often born with problems affecting other parts of their bodies, such as the brain. Some of the related conditions include congenital heart defects and holoprosencephaly, in which people are born with only a single cerebral hemisphere.
The hemeralopyces are a group of parasitic worms that infest the aortic arches in the human body. They are a class of nematodes.
The aortic arches are the first part of the circulatory system to develop in an embryo. Arteries form from the aortic arches as the heart begins to beat and veins form from the pulmonary artery. The majority of the aortic arches regresses, but three pairs do not: the ones that develop into the carotid and subclavian arteries and the one that develops into the common iliac artery.
The aortic arches are initially divided into two groups: anterior and posterior. These groups, in turn, are split into vessels supplying different parts of the body. The first part of the aorta to develop comes from the truncus arteriosus, while the last part of the aorta to develop is the part directly connected to the heart itself. The part of the aorta that develops from the truncus arteriosus first gives rise to the part of the aorta that runs along the back of the heart.
The aortic arches are involved in a variety of congenital heart diseases. They can be involved in both acquiring and complicating certain birth defects of the heart and great vessels.
The arch of aorta gives rise to several arteries and veins, called subarcuate anastomoses or “praecoxes”. An arterial anastomosis is a set of arteries that anastomose (connect) near the aortic arch. The main group of arteries that anastomose are the intercostal arteries and the paired and unpaired subcostal arteries. There are between eleven and nineteen of these arteries that give rise to the arterial praecoxes.
The paired subcostal arteries is an artery that branches off of the first aortic arch. There are usually between seven and nine intercostal arteries. They branch into the intercostal spaces to supply blood the skin and muscles in that location.
These paired arteries branch out of the aortic arches at the same level as the intercostal arteries. The paired subcostal arteries are the largest of the praecoxes. The subcostal arteries run along beside the spinal cord, supplying blood to it. These arteries are also known as the verterbral arteries. The paired subcostal arteries are a pair of arteries that branch off of the first aortic arch, superior to the paired subcostal veins.
The paired subcostal arteries are near the trigone of the base of the urinary bladder in the fetus. The paired subcostal arteries give rise to many small arteries that travel through the layers of the inferior part of the rectus abdominis muscle and anastomose with branches from the similarly named veins.
The paired subcostal veins are a pair of veins that drain blood flow from the lower part of the body, as well as parts of the pelvis and abdomen. They develop in the same area as the paired subcostal arteries.
The intercostal veins run between the layers of the intercostal muscles, draining blood back to the superior vena cava.
These small veins run between the layers of the transversus abdominis muscles and drain blood flow back to the inferior vena cava.
The “praecox” blood vessels are important in complicated types of aortic arch aneurysms and dissections.
As the aorta develops, it branches into two different vessels. The part of the aorta that connects to the pulmonary trunk is known as the “descending” aorta. The other branch that rises up from the aorta is the “splanchnic” aorta. The splanchnic aorta develop in a series of “zones”. Each of these zones give rise to specific groups of blood vessels.
The “inferior” part of the aorta is the zone that gives rise to the arteries that run along the front of the spinal cord. The “segmental” part is the zone that gives rise to arteries that run along side specific parts of the digestive system, such as the esophagus and stomach. The “suprarenal” part is the zone that gives rise to the arteries that run along side the kidneys. The “lumbar” part is the zone that gives rise to arteries that run along side different parts of the lower abdomen, such as the liver and intestine.
The aorta branches into two arteries at different places during fetal development and adult life. The “inferior mesenteric artery” branches off of the aorta relatively low down, near the middle of the transverse colon. The “superior mesenteric artery” branches off of the aorta relatively high up, near the middle of the small intestine.
The first part of the aorta to develop is the part that will become the “descending” aorta. The next part to develop is the part that will become the “inferior vena cava”.
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