Hyperpituitarism

Hyperpituitarism is a disorder characterized by excessive and abnormal levels of dopamine (DA) in the brain. DA is one of the most important neurotransmitters in the nervous system. Dopamine plays a key role in many functions including movement, mood, cognition, motivation and reward.

Dopamine is released from nerve cells called neurons into the synapse where it acts on other nearby neurons to produce various behaviors such as pleasure or desire.

The main symptoms of hypercapitality are:

Increased energy level (euphoria)

Decreased fatigue/fatigue associated with exertion or physical activity (anhedonia)

An increase in sexual desire and satisfaction (hypoactive sexual desires disorder) [1] [2] [3][4] [5][6][7] [8][9] Increased libido (hypersexuality)[10] Increased appetite[11], overeating, eating large amounts of food (obesity), and weight gain (bulimia).[12]

Dopamine is also involved in learning and memory. There are several studies which show that individuals with high levels of dopamine have better memories than those with low levels.

Most of the drugs that increase dopamine also increase the risk of developing a substance abuse disorder. The most common substance abuse disorders are caused directly by the effects of heightened dopamine levels and/or prolonged drug use causes changes in the structure and function of neurons that are related to dopamine.

Dopamine is involved in cognitive abilities such as attention, motivation, and working memory. Changes in dopamine levels can also affect the ability to learn and perform other cognitive tasks.

Neuroleptic drugs for schizophrenia block dopamine receptors in a dose-dependent manner. By blocking these receptors, higher doses of these drugs can be used to treat the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Unfortunately, this can also result in serious side effects including tardive dyskinesia, a condition characterized by involuntary lip smacking, frowning and chewing.

Research has also shown that blocking these receptors can cause cognitive deficits in some areas such as attention and memory, an effect known as tardive dysintellegence.

Because of this risk, the use of these drugs should be limited to patients with severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. These patients have a reduced quality of life and a shorter life expectancy because of their illness. This means that the potential risks of blocking these receptors must be carefully weighed against the benefits they can provide.

There are various types of receptors in the brain that are classified based on their chemical composition and their function.

There are two major types of dopamine receptors, D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, D4, and D6).

D1-like receptors are located in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC). The PFC is responsible for controlling cognition, impulse control, decision making and personality. These receptors can be further subdivided into D1 and D5 receptors.

The D1 receptor is thought to be responsible for psychological “reward” and the reinforcement of behavior. The D1 receptor has also been shown to be involved in OCD and Parkinson’s disease. The dysregulation of D1 receptors have been shown to play a role in schizophrenia, bipolar, and mood disorders.

The D5 receptor also known as the “pleasure” receptor has only recently been discovered. It has been shown to be involved in the reinforcement of behavior and psychological rewards. Dysregulation of this receptor has been shown to be involved in schizophrenia, bipolar, and major depression.

D2-like receptors have not been studied as extensively, but there is evidence that these play a role in working memory and possibly impulse control. The D3 receptor has been shown to play a role in drug induced psychosis and schizophrenia. The dysregulation of the D4 receptor has been shown to be involved in several psychiatric disorders.

These types of receptors can also be subdivided into alpha and beta subtypes.

Sources & references used in this article:

GRAVES’DISEASE: HYPERTHYROIDISM OR HYPERPITUITARISM? by SC WERNER, H HAMILTON… – The Journal of Clinical …, 1952 – academic.oup.com

THE HYPOPHYSIS CEREBRI CLINICAL ASPECTS OF HYPERPITUITARISM AND OF HYPOPITUITARISM by H Cushing – Journal of the American Medical Association, 1909 – jamanetwork.com

HYPERPITUITARISM BEGINNING IN INFANCY THE ALTON GIANT by LH Behrens, DP Barr – Endocrinology, 1932 – academic.oup.com

Hyperpituitarism and hypopituitarism by LM Davidoff – Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 1940 – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

FURTHER EVIDENCE THAT HYPERTHYROIDISM (GRAVES’DISEASE) IS NOT HYPERPITUITARISM: EFFECTS OF TRIIODOTHYRONINE AND SODIUM IODIDE by SC WERNER, M Spooner… – The Journal of Clinical …, 1955 – academic.oup.com

Some observations on anterior lobe hyperpituitarism by JK Fancher – Endocrinology, 1932 – academic.oup.com