Hyperemia is a condition where there are excessive amounts of blood in the eyes. There are various causes which may lead to this condition such as:

Bleeding from wounds or cuts, bleeding during surgery, accidents, trauma etc.

Blood clots (thrombosis)

High fever

Infection (such as herpes simplex virus type 1)

Poisoning (e.g. arsenic, cyanide)

Trauma (such as falls)

Severe burns

Cancerous growths (melanoma, skin cancer)

The most common cause of hyperemia is a wound or cut. These types of injuries usually result in a large amount of blood loss. Other causes include:

Wounds caused by blunt objects such as rocks or knives. These types of injuries often involve the face and neck areas.

Tornadoes, earthquakes and other natural disasters. These types of injuries may involve the head, chest, arms and legs.

Accidents involving motor vehicles or machinery. These types of injuries may involve the body parts such as the face, hands and feet.

At the emergency room

If you have a large amount of blood in your eyes, you should seek emergency medical care immediately. The reason for this is that you can experience bleeding in the lens of the eyes which could result in vision loss.

You should prepare yourself for this by taking some important information such as an updated photo identification card, your insurance card and a list of your medical problems including any allergies you may have.

At the emergency room, the medical staff will clean your eyes and then examine them using an instrument called an ophthalmoscope. This device allows the person using it to see inside your eye. Normally, it can be used to check for bleeding in the lens of the eyes.

Treatment will depend upon the underlying cause of the bleeding. In some cases, surgery may be required.

Sources & references used in this article:

Myocardial reactive hyperemia. by RA Olsson – Circulation research, 1975 – Am Heart Assoc

Reactive hyperemia characteristics of the myocardium by JD Coffman, DE Gregg – American Journal of Physiology …, 1960 – journals.physiology.org

Myocardial reactive hyperemia in the unanesthetized dog by RA Olsson, DE Gregg – American Journal of Physiology …, 1965 – journals.physiology.org

Noninvasive identification of patients with early coronary atherosclerosis by assessment of digital reactive hyperemia by PO Bonetti, GM Pumper, ST Higano… – Journal of the …, 2004 – onlinejacc.org