Fenugreek (Foenum multiflorum) is a perennial herb from the family Fabaceae native to India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Its leaves are used as a spice or flavoring in Indian cuisine, but it’s most popular use is its ability to boost male libido. Fenugreek contains high amounts of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and testosterone.
In addition to its health benefits, fenugreek is known for its aphrodisiac properties. Fenugreek seeds contain a chemical called myrosinase which breaks down the endocannabinoid system and stimulates sexual desire. Myrosinase was first isolated in 1998. 
The main active compounds in fenugreek are luteolin (2-8mg/g dry weight) and quercetin (0.5-3mg/g dry weight). Other constituents include flavonoids such as kaempferol (6-20mg/g dry weight), epicatechin (0.4-7mg/g dry weight) and sesquiterpene lactones such as quercetin (1.9-13mg/g dry weight).
Fenugreek is a plant that has been used for centuries and was first used by Hippocrates in the 4th century to treat vaginal yeast infections. It has also been used to treat stomach ulcers, diarrhea and diabetes. The herb contains steroid-like chemicals that increase testosterone levels and libido, and can help women suffering from infertility or amenorrhea. In addition, it can help lower blood sugar levels.
Fenugreek is an herb that has been used as a spice in curries and other dishes. The leaves and sprouts of the plant are commonly available in grocery stores. It can also be found in pill form or as an extract for women who want to improve their fertility.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an herb that is native to the Mediterranean area, but now can be found growing in many other parts of the world. It has been used for both food and medicine since ancient times, and has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine.
The components of fenugreek that have biological effects are known as saponins. Of the four major classes of saponins found in fenugreek, the four main ones are chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavokavains and neoflavokavains. These natural chemicals can be altered by drying, heating or processing.
Take one teaspoon (3 grams) of the herb twice a day. You can also use fenugreek as a spice in cooking to improve taste or as a medicine for its health benefits.
The seeds are the part of the fenugreek plant that contain the highest amounts of the active ingredients. You can take fenugreek as a capsule, tablet or in a concentrated form. Make sure to follow the directions on the package because the amount of fenugreek to be taken varies depending on the product.
The main health benefits of fenugreek include lowering blood sugar levels, regulation of hormone levels and the treatment of inflammation and gastrointestinal problems.
Fenugreek is a plant that has been used as both a food and medicine in many parts of the world, including India, China and the Middle East. It is commonly grown throughout Canada. More recently it has become popular with bodybuilders and athletes who are looking to increase their testosterone levels and build muscle mass.
This article was written by Chris Evelo for Patagonia Travel.
When we think of the word “plastic”, most of us probably think of synthetic materials that are derived from petrochemicals and have come to dominate modern life. With over 8 billion tons of plastic produced since 1950, it now surrounds us in almost every aspect of our lives and will continue to do so for centuries to come as it takes hundreds of years for just some plastics to breakdown.
The term “plastics” usually conjures up images of the many synthetic materials that are used in everything from packaging to clothing. However, it can also be used to refer to other man-made materials such as rubber or even substances like asbestos (as in the case of historical hoses for instance). Indeed, the term “plastic” was first used in 1851 to describe any sort of material that could be moulded into any shape. It wasn’t until 1907 that the now popular meaning of the word as we know it today, a synthetic material derived from petrochemicals, came into common usage.
The First Synthetic Plastic – Parkesine
Though the first fully synthetic plastic was only developed in 1869, the search for such materials had been going on for many years before then. The first semi-synthetic plastic was actually invented in 1834 by an American named John Washburn. He accidentally mixed nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate or simply celluloid) with ether and ethanol and came up with a material that could be moulded into shapes and held them permanently. He tried to sell the idea to manufacturers, but failed to do so as the material was highly flammable. It wasn’t until 1850 when a British chemist called Alexander Parkes improved the process so the material wasn’t flammable any more that it caught on.
It was soon used in many applications from hair combs to piano keys. Even the famous Gunther von Duvenbeck, a German inventor and pianist, had a piano entirely made from cellulose-based material in 1859. Sadly, Parkes’ invention was already starting to decay and as a result didn’t last very long. Nonetheless, von Duvenbeck went down in history as the first person to ever perform on a piano made from synthetic material.
The First True Synthetic Plastic – Bakelite
It was another half a century before the next major breakthrough in synthetic plastic technology. In 1909, a Hungarian-born American chemist called Leo Baekeland invented a new material, which he patented under the name “Bakelite.” Like the earlier celluloid, it was made from a combination of chemicals and was mouldable into different shapes. Unlike the earlier material however, it was not flammable and did not decay. Instead, it was resistant to heat, un-reactive and could even be dissolved in certain solvents.
Baekeland demonstrated his creation at the 1909 New York International Exhibition where it was very well received. By the following year, manufacturers were already using it for a wide range of purposes from electrical components to billiard ball sets. In the years that followed, over 7000 different products were manufactured with the material. It was such a success that popular demand for the material actually interrupted supplies of it as manufacturers struggled to meet the levels of consumption.
The Creation of Polymers
After the development of Bakelite, the next major advances in plastic technology didn’t occur until after the Second World War. During this time, a British chemist called John Turtle Wood discovered the first of a new class of materials he called “polymers.” His invention of the term is also credited with helping to create a clearer distinction between it and the term “plastics” that had been used before then. It was only now that scientists began to realize the potential of creating new types of materials for a wide range of applications.
One such polymer was cellulose acetate, which was invented in the late 1930s. By mixing wood pulp with chemicals and applying heat, acetate fibers could be created that could then be woven into fabrics. Known as “cellulose fabrics,” they soon became popular with the garment industry thanks to their low cost and wide range of colors available. A similar process was also used to create a transparent thermoplastic under the brand name of Plexiglas. Although very strong and impact-resistant, its high manufacturing costs prevented it from being widely used in consumer products.
The Post-War Boom
It was only with the boom in synthetic materials that occurred during the post-war period that plastic started becoming a dominant force in the world of consumer products. Between the 1950s to the 1970s, plastic consumption increased 20-fold. The boom was fueled by a combination of factors including:
The introduction of new and cheaper manufacturing methods that increased production levels
An increase in oil production that made petrochemical ingredients more affordable and readily available
Increased consumer spending, which prompted manufacturers to find cheap alternatives to natural materials
A vast range of new materials were invented during this period. These included:
The introduction of new materials didn’t just result in a change in the types of plastic available, it also resulted in changes to the appearance and texture of plastic goods. New chemicals meant that manufacturers weren’t restricted to just a few standard colors for specific types of plastic. As a result, plastic products could now be made in a wide range of colors. They could also be made to look like natural materials like wood and leather. In some cases they were even made to look like more expensive materials like chrome and silver.
The use of these new materials resulted in a boom in the popularity of several consumer goods. One obvious area was clothing where cheaper artificial fibers replaced more expensive natural ones. In the case of leather and fur, it completely replaced them altogether. Home furnishings also benefited from the introduction of new plastic materials that not only looked like more expensive materials, but in many cases were sturdier and less prone to damage. Cars and car parts were another area that saw obvious improvements.
The Explosion of Plastic Packaging
Of all the changes brought about by the invention of new types of plastic, the one that had perhaps the biggest impact on the consumer was the explosion of plastic packaging.
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