Clonus Definition: A condition where there are abnormal involuntary muscle contractions at the ankles, knees or feet. These contractions may be caused by nerve damage or other conditions such as epilepsy, spinal cord injury, brain tumors and Parkinson’s disease.
What Causes Clonus?
The exact cause of clonic seizures is not known but it is believed that they are due to overactivity of certain nerves in the brain which control voluntary muscles. There is no specific cure for clonic seizure disorder. Treatment usually consists of medication to reduce the frequency and severity of these seizures.
Causes Of Hyperreflexia And Myoclonus:
There are several possible causes of hyperreflexia and myoclonus including:
Neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke, head trauma, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and others.
Medical conditions such as cancer, heart disease, thyroid problems and others.
Other medical conditions such as pregnancy and childbirth.
How Is Clonus Treated?
Treatment for clonus is based on the underlying cause. Specific treatment may include:
Drugs such as antiepileptic medications, baclofen, and benzodiazepines.
Surgical procedures such as spinal cord stimulation, laminectomy, and cervical cordotomy.
In some cases, clonus does not require any treatment.
How Is Clonus Prevented?
There is no known way to prevent clonus. However, it is very important to detect the cause and treat it as soon as possible. This is because the underlying condition that causes this problem can significantly affect your overall health.
What Are The Similarities Between Clonus And Myoclonus?
Both are conditions in which there are irregular and involuntary muscle contractions.
Both clonus and myoclonus may occur simultaneously or separately.
What Are The Differences Between Clonus And Myoclonus?
Clonus is a form of myoclonus that only involves the muscles of the body.
Myoclonus is a form of myoclonus that also involves the muscles of the face.
Myoclonic seizures are a kind of clonic seizure. These are types of epileptic seizure that involve only the muscles rather than the whole body.
Clonus causes sudden jerking movements of the legs, arms and trunk while myoclonus affects only some of the muscles in the body.
Myoclonus, unlike clonus, is not a sign of degenerative conditions or serious health problems.
What Is The Connection Between Clonus And Spasticity?
Spasticity is also a condition in which there are irregular and involuntary muscle contractions. These contractions are caused by damage to the central nervous system.
In most cases, spasticity only affects some of the muscles in the body.
Spasticity can cause a condition known as hypertonia in which there is an increase in muscle tone and the affected individual has an exaggerated startle response.
Clonus, on the other hand, affects the whole body and is mainly caused by degenerative health conditions.
Sources & references used in this article:
Prognosis after a first untreated tonic-clonic seizure by RDC Elwes, P Chesterman, EH Reynolds – The Lancet, 1985 – Elsevier
Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalized onset tonic‐clonic seizures by CT Smith, AG Marson… – Cochrane Database of …, 2001 – cochranelibrary.com
Generalized tonic-clonic activity after remifentanil administration by GW Haber, RS Litman – Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2001 – cdn.journals.lww.com
Tonic-clonic seizures in a patient with primary hypoparathyroidism: a case report by C Armelisasso, ML Vaccario… – Clinical EEG and …, 2004 – journals.sagepub.com
Critical evaluation of four different seizure detection systems tested on one patient with focal and generalized tonic and clonic seizures by A Van de Vel, K Verhaert, B Ceulemans – Epilepsy & Behavior, 2014 – Elsevier