Brain Anatomy

Brain Functions Chart:

1) The Cerebral Cortex – The center of all cognitive processes.

It controls thinking, language, memory, attention and other functions.

2) The Limbic System – Controls emotions such as joy or sadness.

It regulates moods and feelings.

3) The Nervous System -Controls reflexes and movement patterns in the body.

Also helps with balance and coordination of muscles.

4) The Somatic System – Controls body functions such as digestion, reproduction and immune system.

5) The Temporal Lobe – Controls time perception, spatial orientation and self-awareness.

6) The Occipital Lobes – Facilitates visual processing, vision and hearing.

Brain Function:

1) Visual Processing – The ability to perceive light and color.

It enables us to see objects in the world around us.

2) Hearing – The ability to hear sounds in the environment.

It allows us to detect sound waves and distinguish between different frequencies of sound.

3) Long-term Memory – The ability to store and retrieve information for a long period of time.

It involves the transfer of information from short-term memory to long-term memory.

4) Short-term Memory – The ability to remember or keep in mind a piece of information for a short period of time.

5) Mood or Emotion – Moods are temporary feelings that last for a short period of time such as happiness or sadness.

Emotions are more complex and last longer than moods.

6) Time Perception – The ability to determine how time is passing or how much time has passed since something occurred.

It involves the connection between thinking, attention and time perception.

7) Spatial Orientation – The ability to perceive your surroundings in relation to your position.

It allows you to know where you are and how to get to where you are going.

8) Self-Awareness – The ability to think about yourself as a separate being.

It involves having a sense of self and being aware of your internal thought process.

9) Attention – The ability to concentrate on something or someone and disregard distractions.

It is the ability to focus on something.

10) Long-term Memory Storage – The ability to remember or store information in your long-term memory. It enables you to remember facts, events or ideas.

It is essential to know about brain anatomy because the brain is the control center of our human body. Without knowing how our brain works and what it does we cannot be able to understand ourselves. Our ability to learn, behave, think and reason are all influenced by the structure of our brain. Our personality is also shaped by the way our brain interacts with different stimuli in our environment.

By: Isaiah R.

Tongue & Groin:

Stand in a fighting stance and your opponent does the same. You approach each other, carefully watching the opponent’s eyes for sudden movements towards you. Stop. There is tension and powerful silence between you both.

Your vision goes from your opponent’s eyes to their hands to their hips and back up to their eyes again.

You both pause; the first one to attack will be at a disadvantage.

Your opponent makes the first move, perhaps they are too impatient. They step towards you with their right foot. You now know that they are more likely to attack with their right side because it is closer to you. Their right side also has a disadvantage; it is closer to your own right side which is more powerful than your left.

As your opponent steps forward with their right foot, they raise their right arm up and slightly backwards in preparation of an attack. Your opponent is clearly right-handed.

You know that you need to respond quickly or else you will get hit. You wait for your opponent’s attack then push it aside and retaliate with a powerful punch to their ribs. They stagger backwards slightly and recover, bringing both arms up in defense.

Your eyes flick from your opponent’s defense to their head and back.

Should you go for an elbow strike to break their defense? Or should you go for a kick?

By Mattia S.


You enter the room. It’s white, the walls, the bed, the floor. The door is wide open yet you can’t see through it. You look down and notice you are wearing a pure white robe.

There is nothing else in the room except a small silver tray with a note on it. You walk over to it and read the note aloud.

“The doctor will see you now.”

You look around the room in confusion. There is no one else in the room yet the note is in the third person.

Whom shall I see?”

You ask aloud.

You jump as a voice answers from behind you, “The doctor of course.”

You turn around and find yourself face to face with a woman. She wears thick black rimmed glasses and has her blond hair pulled into a tight bun. Her lips are pursed and her eyebrows are furrowed. The woman wears a long white coat that flares out slightly at the bottom.

It is covered in pockets, each one a different color. The coat reaches nearly to her ankles.

What seems to be the problem?”

She ask, her arms crossed in front of her.

You open your mouth but no sound comes out. Instead you stand there, feeling dumbfounded and incapable of speech.

You see a flash of annoyance in her eyes before she turns away from you.

“It’s people like you who make this job difficult.” She complains, “Now please, make yourself scarce. I’m very busy and can’t be bothered with laymen such as yourself.”

You don’t know what to do or say but before you can come up with anything she grabs your arm and leads you towards the door.

“You may leave now.” She demands as she shoves you out the door and slams it behind you.

You stand in the hallway feeling slightly angry. You don’t even know why, she didn’t even do anything to you! With a sigh you realize that you’re already feeling slightly anxious and irritated due to situations like this.

By Alison H.

Your alarm clock rudely interrupts your sleep, you groggily hit the snooze button and roll over. You feel like you just closed your eyes when your alarm clock interrupts your sleep again. You sit up and swing your legs over the side of your bed.

“Ugh, I don’t want to go…” You say to yourself as you stand up.

You take a quick shower, throw on some clothes then quickly eat some breakfast before leaving for school. Your walk to school is uneventful, but you always enjoy the feeling of the morning breeze against your face as you walk along. You arrive at school and notice that plenty of people are still hanging around outside, busy with their own conversations. A few people say hello to you as you walk by them but you simply smile and wave in response.

As you enter the building a familiar face catches your eye, it’s Ben! Ben is one of your close friends from school and he’s standing just inside the front doors, like you are, waiting for the late bell to ring. He sees you and waves you over.

What’s up Ben?”

You ask.

Not much man, you?”

He replies.

Nothing much, so did you finish that biology homework like I told you to?”

You joke.

Ben looks slightly embarrassed and mumbles “uhhh… yeah,” under his breath. He’s always been a little shy but he’s a genuinely nice guy, which is why you’re friends with him.

The bell rings and you head off to your first class together.

You have a couple of classes with Ben then you have lunch with him as well. You both pick a seat in the far corner of the cafeteria, away from most of the other students and most of the drama that tends to occur in that area. After you’re done eating you take your trays to the trash and throw them away then head out to the front lawn to kill time before your next class.

About halfway through your break you begin to feel that same dizziness and headaches as you did yesterday. “I’m gonna have to tell the nurse again…” You think to yourself.

Just then you see Ben walk out of the cafeteria with a brown bag. He seems to be walking it all over the place, looking around as if he’s in fear of someone trying to steal it from him. You never knew he was that protective of his food, maybe he has a crush on one of the cafeteria ladies and that bag holds something special for her.

You wave and try to catch his attention but he doesn’t seem to notice you. In fact he seems to be trying to avoid you, you don’t know why anyone would want to do that but he keeps his head down and starts to walk in your direction.

“Man I need to tell him what happened yesterday,” you think to yourself.

Just as Ben is passing you he suddenly makes a hard turn and bumps right into you, dropping his bag in the process.

“Hey man what’s…” You start to say but then you look down at the contents of Ben’s bag and see that it’s a large plastic freezer bag filled with some sort of green vegetable.

Ben immediately starts apologizing for dropping his bag in such a way that its contents fell out. You look up at him as he’s picking up the vegetables and you notice that his face seems to be thinner and his eyes seem to be a different color.

You feel the need to say something but your mind goes completely blank. You try to speak but nothing comes out of your mouth.

“Sorry about that,” Ben says as he finishes picking up his vegetables, “Alright let’s go.” He starts walking again and you follow not saying a word.

Before long you’ve arrived at your next class and you go find your seat. “Weird,” you think to yourself, “I could have sworn Ben was in my biology class.”

You take your seat and begin to listen to the lecture but for whatever reason you can’t seem to focus. Something about this whole situation seems really off but you just can’t put y our finger on it…

Sources & references used in this article:

Human brain anatomy in computerized images. by H Damasio – 1995 –

Volumetric transformation of brain anatomy by GE Christensen, SC Joshi… – IEEE transactions on …, 1997 –

Brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in Asperger’s syndrome by GM McAlonan, E Daly, V Kumari, HD Critchley… – Brain, 2002 –

Brain anatomy and development in autism: review of structural MRI studies by P Brambilla, A Hardan, SU Di Nemi, J Perez… – Brain research …, 2003 – Elsevier