Testosterone: A hormone produced mainly by the testes. It helps maintain male characteristics such as muscle mass, bone density, and sexual drive. Testosterone levels are higher in men than women because they produce more testosterone during puberty. Low testosterone causes many health problems including low libido, fatigue, depression, and impotence. High levels of testosterone cause aggression, aggressiveness, increased energy and strength. Testosterone is also linked with male pattern baldness (androgenetic alopecia) and other hair loss conditions.
Estrogens: Another female hormones produced mainly by ovaries. Estrogens affect body functions such as moods and emotions. They are known to decrease acne scars and reduce risk of heart disease.
Sperm count: Sperm count is the number of motile adult male cells in a ejaculate. It’s measured by counting the number of “motile” or moving cells per milliliter of ejaculate. Average testicular volume is 2 ml/kg, which means that if your total weight is 100 kg, then your testicle volume would be 1/2 of that amount. Normal values are between 1.5 and 6 ml/kg (middle number is taken), greater than 6 ml/kg is considered oligospermia (low numbers of quality cells) and less than 1.5 is considered severe oligospermia or azoospermia (no testicular cells at all).
Blood tests: Blood tests can also be ordered to check your levels of cholesterol, hormones, and other substances.
Testicle size and weight: The size of the testicles can also be used to indirectly determine the levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Normal testicle size is between 5 and 10 grams. If one testicle is smaller than 5 grams then there’s a disorder of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. If the testicle is above 10 grams then there is a disorder of the testes.
Clomiphene citrate: Clomid is a drug used to stimulate ovulation. It works by inhibiting estrogen production, which allows the hypothalamus to start working properly again and start signaling the pituitary to release FSH and LH. The pituitary then starts releasing these hormones which stimulate the ovaries to produce estrogen, progesterone, and eggs.
GnRH (Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone): This medication is given to women with hypothalamic amenorrhea. It helps signal the pituitary to release enough FSH and LH.
Estradiol: This drug is a type of estrogen. Estrogen is one of the two types of female hormones (the other one being progesterone). It helps in reproduction, bone strength, and heart health.
Prolactin: This drug is a type of hormone responsible for milk production in women who have just given birth. It is given to women suffering from hyperprolactinemia with an intact pituitary tumor (they don’t appear to need surgery immediately). These drugs help suppress tumor growth (we hope).
Sources & references used in this article:
Infant testicular prostheses by JS Elder, MA Keating, JW Duckett – The Journal of urology, 1989 – auajournals.org
Qualitative study of men’s perceptions of why treatment delays occur in the UK for those with testicular cancer. by A Chapple, S Ziebland, A McPherson – British journal of general practice, 2004 – bjgp.org
Some observations on the role of the scrotal sac and testicles by AI Bell – Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1961 – journals.sagepub.com
Are HIV-negative men who have sex with men and who bareback concerned about HIV infection? Implications for HIV risk reduction interventions by IC Balán, A Carballo-Diéguez, A Ventuneac… – Archives of sexual …, 2013 – Springer