Anterograde Amnesia

Anterograde amnesia is a type of memory loss that occurs when there are problems with the way your brain processes memories. When you lose some or all of your memories, it’s like losing part of yourself. You may not remember everything, but you do have access to them again through other means such as dreams or flashbacks. There are two types of anterograde amnesia: retrograde and anteroposterior (or “anterior”). Retrograde amnesia happens when you forget something while you’re still experiencing it. For example, if someone tells you where a certain object is located and then later they don’t show up at the location, that person forgot to tell you where the object was located. Anteroposterior amnesia happens after the event has happened and is caused by damage to areas of your brain that process sensory information.

Retrograde amnesia affects one side of the brain and usually results from injury to the frontal lobe. People with retrograde amnesia often experience difficulty remembering events before their teens or even younger. They may also have trouble forming new memories. The most common cause of retrograde amnesia is head trauma, which can happen during a car accident, sports injuries, falls or accidents involving machinery. Other possible causes include stroke, tumors in the brain or infections such as meningitis.

The type of anterograde amnesia discussed here is anterograde amnesia caused by damage to the brain’s medial temporal lobes. These areas are responsible for memory storage, and if damaged, they can cause the inability to create new memories after the injury. Medial temporal lobe amnesia is one of the rarest forms of amnesia and is often temporary, but it can be permanent in rare cases.

What Causes Anterograde Amnesia?

The medial temporal lobes help store new information into your memory. When they become damaged, the ability to make new memories is lost as a protective measure to prevent more brain damage from occurring. The brain doesn’t want you to experience more pain, so it shuts down the mechanisms responsible for making memories. If the injury is minor enough and the patient recovers, then normal memory storage will occur again in time.

What are the Risk Factors of Anterograde Amnesia?

The main risk factor of anterograde amnesia is brain damage. When the brain is damaged, it can shut off certain functions to prevent further damage from occurring. The loss of memory storage is one of the protective measures that the brain takes. The more severe the injury, the more likely it is for this condition to occur. However, even minor injuries can trigger AM.

What are the Symptoms of Anterograde Amnesia?

The most prominent sign of anterograde amnesia is the inability to form new memories. This means that a person with this condition can’t remember what happened more than a few minutes ago. If you tell the person something or ask them questions, they will have no recollection of any of it a few minutes later. Since they have no long-term memory, they’re often unaware that anything is wrong with them.

Other symptoms of anterograde amnesia also include:

Difficulty remembering new information: If a person with anterograde amnesia has a hard time understanding something that you say, they won’t be able to retain the information for very long.

Can’t remember the immediate past: If the condition is recent, a person might not remember anything that happened more than a few minutes ago.

Confusion: A person may experience confusion as they attempt to make sense of the world around them since they are unable to make new memories.

Short-term memory loss: Some people with this condition can’t remember things that happen more than a few seconds ago.

Treatments For Anterograde Amnesia

There is currently no known cure for anterograde amnesia, but treatment is available to help manage symptoms.

Cognitive behavioral therapy: This type of therapy can be used to improve memory skills and help a person with anterograde amnesia manage their condition. It also teaches individuals new ways to cope with memory loss and helps them adjust to changes.

Medication: Medications are available to help improve memory loss and manage other symptoms.

Possible Complications of Anterograde Amnesia

If a person with anterograde amnesia also has epileptic seizures, they are at an increased risk of sudden death from epilepsy if their seizures aren’t well controlled.

Also, a person with anterograde amnesia may develop depression due to the nature of their condition.

How is Anterograde Amnesia Diagnosed?

To be diagnosed with anterograde amnesia, a person must meet the following criteria:

The patient must be able to make and retain new memories less than one day old.

They also have trouble remembering information that was learned before the onset of symptoms.

Diagnosis must rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms, such as: Mental retardation or intellectual disability Dementia Parkinson’s disease Multiple sclerosis Huntington’s disease

Brain scans, such as an MRI or CT scan, may be used to rule out other conditions.

Blood tests may also be used to rule out other conditions.

How is Anterograde Amnesia Treated?

There is no universally effective treatment for anterograde amnesia. However, patients can benefit from the following:

Rest and activity: Since stress and over-exertion can worsen memory issues, it’s important for a person to take things easy. Reducing stress and practicing relaxation techniques may help to improve memory loss.

Psychological care: A person with anterograde amnesia can benefit from counseling to help manage issues like depression and anxiety. This is important since depression can worsen memory loss, and a patient may find it difficult to cope with memory loss.

Medication: Medications are available to help manage the symptoms of anterograde amnesia. These may include antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications.

Physical therapy: A physical therapy program may be beneficial. This can help improve memory skills, and can also help a person with anterograde amnesia get the most out of any physical and cognitive skills they have.

Have a loved one who has just been diagnosed with anterograde amnesia?

Browse this care program for memory loss patients to find the best facility for your loved one.

Sources & references used in this article:

Posttraumatic retrograde and anterograde amnesia: pathophysiology and implications in grading and safe return to play by RC Cantu – Journal of athletic training, 2001 – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Memory for remote events in anterograde amnesia: recognition of public figures from newsphotographs by WD Marslen-Wilson, HL Teuber – Neuropsychologia, 1975 – Elsevier

Persistent anterograde amnesia after stab wound of the basal brain by HL Teuber, B Milner, HG Vaughan Jr – Neuropsychologia, 1968 – Elsevier

NMDA processes mediate anterograde amnesia of contextual fear conditioning induced by hippocampal damage: immunization against amnesia by context … by SL Young, DL Bohenek, MS Fanselow – Behavioral neuroscience, 1994 – psycnet.apa.org

Anterograde amnesia and temporally graded retrograde amnesia for a nonspatial memory task after lesions of hippocampus and subiculum by RE Clark, NJ Broadbent, SM Zola… – Journal of …, 2002 – Soc Neuroscience

Anterograde amnesia with fornix damage following removal of IIIrd ventricle colloid cyst. by JR Hodges, K Carpenter – Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & …, 1991 – jnnp.bmj.com

The contribution of the anterior thalamic nuclei to anterograde amnesia by JP Aggleton, A Sahgal – Neuropsychologia, 1993 – Elsevier