Toxic Synovitis: Symptoms & Diagnosis
Symptoms of Toxic Synovitis:
The following symptoms have been reported in association with toxic synovitis. If you experience any or all of these symptoms, contact your doctor immediately.
Nausea/Vomiting (sometimes blood)
Diarrhea/Constipation (Sometimes Blood)
Loss of Appetite and Weight Loss
Severe Fatigue and Cognitive Decline
Fever, Chills, Sweating, Muscle Weakness, Joint Pain, Rash, Rashes
Chronic Headache and Seizures
Heart Failure and Stroke
Death from Heart Attack or Stroke
What Causes Toxic Synovitis?
There are several factors that may cause toxic synovitis. These include:
Exposure to certain chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, heavy metals and other toxins.
Genetic predisposition. Some people are more susceptible than others to develop toxic synovitis.
Toxic Synovitis: Diagnosis
Diagnosing toxic synovitis can be difficult, and your doctor may not immediately suspect toxic synovitis. You may need to see several specialists before you get a proper diagnosis. The following tests may be used to diagnose toxic synovitis:
Physical Examination: This will include a physical assessment of all parts of the body, looking for signs of symptoms of toxic synovitis.
Lab Tests: Multiple lab tests may be used to check the blood, urine, spinal fluid and other bodily fluids for toxic substances.
Imaging Tests: These include x-rays (such as a chest x-ray), CT scan, MRI, PET Scan, Angiogram, Arteriogram, Ultrasound and others.
Diagnostic Procedures: This will involve the removal and examination of tissue or fluid from the body for examination under a microscope. This may include skin biopsy, bone marrow biopsy or spinal tap.
Toxic Synovitis: Treatment
The following treatments are used for toxic synovitis. Depending on the severity of your condition, you may only require a low dosage of one or more of these medicines.
Corticosteroids: These drugs suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation. They may be used in severe cases of toxic synovitis.
Immunosuppressants: These drugs are used to prevent your body’s defense system from attacking its own tissues by lowering the ability of your immune system to react to anything.
Biologics: These drugs interfere with how certain substances cause your immune system to respond. The most common biologic drug used for toxic synovitis is abatacept.
Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drugs: Some of these drugs examples include methotrexate, etanercept, adalimumab, anakinra and others.
Pain Medications: These may include acetaminophen (Tylenol), tramadol (Ultram) or opioids such as oxycodone (OxyContin), hydrocodone (Vicodin) and others.
Toxic Synovitis: Prevention
To help prevent toxic synovitis, you should avoid exposure to toxins as much as possible. This includes avoiding contact with chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides when possible. You should also take care when using cleaning supplies, paint and other toxins. If you are working with power tools or machinery, make sure you use the correct personal protective equipment at all times. If you are in an environment that contains toxic substances, you should wear a supplied air respirator.
You should also check to see if there are any gas leaks, or other potential safety concerns in the environment before working. If you are working around gasoline, you should avoid all sources of ignition, including cigarettes and cell phones. If you notice anything that may be a potential fire hazard, report it immediately.
Sources & references used in this article:
Toxic synovitis by JJ McCarthy, KJ Noonan – Skeletal radiology, 2008 – Springer
Toxic synovitis of the hip in children. by E Waters – The Nurse Practitioner, 1995 – europepmc.org
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Transient synovitis: lack of serologic evidence for acute parvovirus B-19 or human herpesvirus-6 infection by GR Lockhart, YL Longobardi… – Journal of Pediatric …, 1999 – journals.lww.com
Joint effusion in children with an irritable hip: US diagnosis and aspiration. by JK Zawin, FA Hoffer, FF Rand, RL Teele – Radiology, 1993 – pubs.rsna.org
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Differentiating Transient Synovitis of the Hip from More Urgent Conditions by DD Ryan – Pediatric Annals, 2016 – healio.com