Pseudophakia

Pseudophakia is a condition where your eyesight does not function normally due to damage from exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. There are several types of pseudophakia:

1) Cataracts – When the lens inside your eye becomes cloudy and blurry, it causes blurred vision.

These lenses help focus light on the retina which then sends signals to the brain. If this happens often enough, you might lose your ability to see clearly.

2) Radiation Exposure – This occurs when high levels of radiation (such as those caused by nuclear fallout or x-rays) cause damage to the cells in your body.

This damages the retinal cells and they no longer work properly. You could experience problems with vision such as double vision, blurring of lines, loss of depth perception, and other visual effects.

3) Chemical Sensitivity – People with chemical sensitivity have reactions to certain substances that cause them discomfort.

For example, if someone drinks too much coffee, their skin might become irritated and burn. They might develop headaches or feel sick after consuming certain foods. Some people with chemical sensitivities even experience allergic reactions to common things like soap or cleaning products.

4) Other Causes – Sometimes these conditions are related but sometimes they aren’t.

If you experience a severe loss of vision, you might have a condition called retinal detachment. This happens when the retina becomes separated from its normal place and begins to pull away. It’s a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Blurry or double vision can also be caused by physical damage to the eye itself such as blunt force, heat, or objects in the eye.

What are the signs and symptoms that you may need a pseudophakic IOL?

Below are the signs and symptoms that you may need a pseudophakic IOL:

1) Age – People who experience cataracts before the age of 40 are usually good candidates for this procedure.

If you’re older, then you may need more complex surgery instead.

2) Severity of cataracts – The worst type of cataract is called an age-related cortical cataract.

This is a condition where the lenses of your eye are so cloudy that you are nearly blind. Other types of cataracts are less severe and do not affect vision quite as much. It’s important to note that not all cataracts cause blindness.

Even a mild cataract can interfere with your ability to see clearly especially when doing activities such as reading, driving, or seeing small details.

3) General health – If you have a weakened immune system or other medical conditions, you may not be a good candidate for this surgery.

What are the types of surgeries?

Below are the types of surgeries that can be used to treat cataracts:

1) Small incision surgery – This is one of the most common types of cataract surgeries.

It involves making a small incision in the cornea of your eye to remove the lens of your eye. This incision is so small that it will make a scar that is only about one millimeter in size. This procedure takes about 10-15 minutes to complete.

2) Large incision – In certain cases, your doctor may recommend a procedure called an endotamponade.

This process involves making a larger incision in the front of your eye to remove the cloudy lens. The incision can be up to 3 millimeters. This type of surgery takes about half an hour.

3) Other types of surgeries – There are other procedures that your doctor may suggest such as intracapsular or extracapsular cataract extractions.

How do you prepare for your surgery?

Below are steps and guidelines that you should follow to prepare for your surgery:

1) Stop taking certain medications – You must stop taking blood thinners such as warfarin one week before your surgery.

This is to prevent excessive bleeding during and after the procedure. Other prescription and over the counter medications such as eye drops or liquid medicines must be stopped as directed by your physician.

2) No eye make up – Do not put any more eye shadow, eye liner, mascara, or other eye cosmetics on your eyes.

If you wear contacts, remove your lenses and throw them away.

3) Do not wear eye jewelry – Remove any eye jewelry such as fake eyelashes, hair pieces, or eyebrow rings.

4) Tell your doctor about your medical history – Be sure to tell your doctor about any pre-existing conditions that you have such as high blood pressure or diabetes.

You should also let them know if you are allergic to any medications and if you have a family history of eye problems.

5) Have a pair of glasses – Make sure to have a pair of glasses with you in case your eyesight is less than 20/40 after the procedure.

This is also important for driving yourself home after surgery.

6) Relax before and after the procedure – Your surgeon may provide you with medication to help you relax before your surgery.

This will help you feel calm and prevent any anxiety or stress that can increase your blood pressure and heart rate.

7) Arrive at the hospital early – Get to the hospital about one hour before your surgery time.

Take this time to change into the surgical gown that they give you and leave all of your personal belongings in a safe place.

What are the risks and complications of the surgery?

Some of the potential risks and complications that can occur after surgery are:

1) Infection – This occurs when bacteria or fungi enter a wound or opening in the skin or enters the bloodstream.

Symptoms can include:

a) Swelling

b) Increased redness

c) Increased pain

d) Warmth near the wound

e) Open sores that will not heal

f) Fever above 100 degrees Fahrenheit

2) Bleeding – This includes bleeding from the nose or coughing up blood.

It may also include bleeding internally.

Blood thinners may be required to be given after surgery and you may be transferred to a closer hospital for treatment.

3) Changes in vision – Some change in vision is possible after the surgery.

This can include near or far sightedness. It can also include changes in color perception or light sensitivity.

4) Anesthesia complications – There is always a risk of having a reaction to the anesthetic used during your procedure.

5) Stitches may be visible after healing – This is a normal part of the healing process.

6) Spread of disease – There is always a risk that any surgery, even a minor one, can cause your defenses to weaken and make you more susceptible to common illnesses such as the flu or a cold.

7) Lack of sleep or rest – You may have some pain or swelling that requires you to be off work for a few days.

Make sure you have arranged for someone to help you out if needed. If you are driving yourself home, be careful not to get drowsy while on the road.

8) Breathing restrictions – It is possible that you may experience some trouble breathing after the procedure due to swelling or a reaction to medication.

If you begin to have trouble breathing, call your surgeon immediately.

9) Long-term vision problems – This is extremely rare but has been reported in very few cases.

If you have any questions about the risks or complications of this procedure, be sure to ask your surgeon.

Do I need to change any of my medications before the procedure?

You should not take aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs, or blood thinners (such as clopidogrel, ibuprofen, or naproxen) seven days before and two weeks after surgery because they increase bleeding risk.

Do not stop taking any medication unless your surgeon says it is okay to do so.

If you are diabetic, your doctor may change your insulin levels if you are taking insulin.

Diabetes medicines (such as glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride) may be prescribed after surgery to help control your blood sugar.

You should continue to take any other medications that your doctor has prescribed for you unless your surgeon says otherwise.

Should I stop smoking before surgery?

You should stop smoking as soon as possible because it can cause complications.

You may want to speak to your surgeon about programs to help you stop or at least decrease your smoking before surgery.

If you are having eyelid surgery, you should stop wearing eye makeup one week before surgery. After the surgery, you should use only oil-free makeup until your incision has healed completely.

Do not use products that contain alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) such as glycolic, lactic, citric, and malic acid before your surgery. These ingredients are found in many moisturizers, cleansers and exfoliants. Ask your doctor or dermatologist for recommendations.

You should stop any skin care products with Retin-A or Renova (tretinoin) or similar products at least two weeks before surgery.

What can I expect during the procedure?

This surgery is usually done as an outpatient procedure, so you will not have to stay overnight in the hospital. After your surgery, you will be driven home by a family member or friend and recovery will continue there. Your surgeon will give you specific instructions about medicines to take and when you can go back to work or school. Generally, swelling lasts about one week and some bruising may last up to two weeks.

During the procedure, an incision will be made inside your eyelid to access your cornea. The excimer laser removes a precise pattern of tissue from your cornea to correct your vision. A contact lens will then be placed on the cornea to protect it from infection while it heals.

The LASEK procedure is very similar to the photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) procedure except in the LASEK, an incision is made in the epithelium (top layer of your cornea) rather than in the stroma (the middle, structural layer of the cornea). Your doctor will determine which of these laser eye surgery procedures is best suited for you.

The type of anesthesia varies with the patient and the doctor’s preference. General anesthesia is sometimes used to keep the patient completely unconscious during the surgery. Local anesthesia, which numbs only the area to be operated on, is another possibility.

In this case, the patient is awake and only feels a slight burning sensation. Sedation is a third choice where the patient is not fully asleep but is less aware and responsive during the procedure.

With any type of eye surgery, there is always a small risk of blindness or loss of sight. However, the probability is less than one percent. Your surgeon will go over these possible complications with you during your preoperative appointment.

What is recovery like?

The day of the procedure, one or two bandages will be placed on your eye. An eye shield may also be placed over the eye and a protective shield may be placed around your eye to prevent injury from any objects that may come into contact with your eye. The bandage should not be replaced until the next day when your doctor changes it. Your doctor will give you specific instructions about caring for your eye.

During the first three days after the procedure, you should keep your eye closed and iced. Additionally, you may take acetaminophen (Tylenol) to help with any pain. After three days, you can start performing eye exercises to ensure that the surface of your eye does not degenerate or decay.

These exercises are easy and should not cause any pain if done properly.

You will be able to see at this point, but your vision may not have fully cleared yet. It may take several weeks for the stitches to dissolve and for you to have full, sharp vision.

What are the benefits of laser eye surgery?

Laser eye surgery can be a great option for correcting vision because it is one of the most effective, least invasive methods available. Other options usually involve wearing glasses or contact lenses. These can sometimes be uncomfortable and inconvenient.

Laser eye surgery is a quick and relatively painless way to protect your eyesight and have clear vision. You will never have to take off your glasses to read fine print or struggle to watch a movie any longer. A whole new world of sight will be available to you with this procedure.

The latest advances in laser eye surgery techniques offer a safer, more precise method of correcting vision. The procedure is over quickly, and you will be back to your regular life in no time.

Whether you are an active professional or an athletic teenager, laser eye surgery can help you achieve the perfect vision you need to pursue your goals.

To learn more about laser eye surgery, also known as photorefractive keratectomy and other vision correction surgeries, contact the Boston Eye Center right away.

Sources & references used in this article:

Prevalence of cataract and pseudophakia/aphakia among adults in the United States. by N Congdon, JR Vingerling, BE Klein… – … (Chicago, Ill.: 1960), 2004 – europepmc.org

Monovision pseudophakia by S Greenbaum – Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, 2002 – Elsevier

Pseudophakia and intraocular pressure by RL Radius, K Schultz, K Sobocinski, RO Schultz… – American journal of …, 1984 – Elsevier

Choice of lens and dioptric power in pediatric pseudophakia by E Dahan, MUH Drusedau – Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, 1997 – Elsevier

Pseudophakia in children: precautions, technique, and feasibility by E Dahan, BD Salmenson – Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, 1990 – Elsevier

Cystoid macular edema in pseudophakia by WJ Stark Jr, AE Maumenee, W Fagadau… – Survey of …, 1984 – Elsevier