The Xiphoid Process: A Brief History
Xiphoids are the triangular shaped bones at the base of your spine (see picture). They originate from three vertebrae, but they attach to each other through ligaments and tendons. The two uppermost vertebral bodies are called thoracic or C1 and cervical or C2. These vertebrae form a triangle with the third bone forming a point between them.
In humans, the lower part of the spine consists of six ribs and eight ribs attached to each other. The spinal cord extends down into the pelvis where it connects with nerves. There are five main regions in which the spinal cord branches out: brain stem, neck, trunk, limbs and abdomen. The spinal column is made up of four pairs of vertebrae joined together by ligaments and tendons.
Each pair of vertebrae is called a thoracic vertebra and a lumbar vertebra.
The Xiphoid Process: What Causes It?
There are many theories about what causes the xiphoid process pain. Some believe that it results from pressure on the spinal cord due to compression or irritation of nerves in these areas. Others say that it’s caused by scar tissue buildup around the area of the spine. Still, others believe that trauma may be involved with the xiphoid process.
The Pain: What Is It?
The most common symptom of the condition is pain in the chest or abdomen, usually on one side. This pain can spread to the back and arms. There may be numbness in the arms and legs, particularly on one side of the body. Some people experience a tingling sensation in parts of the skin.
The Nausea: Why Does It Occur?
There are several theories concerning the nausea caused by the xiphoid process. One theory holds that an ulcer in the stomach might be irritating the vagus nerve or the celiac plexus. When these nerves become irritated, it can cause pain and nausea. Some doctors believe that a pinched spinal nerve may be responsible for the nausea.
The Xiphoid Process: What Are The Treatments?
There aren’t any set treatments for this condition, but several options exist for treatment. Your physician may recommend surgery to remove the ulcer or inflamed tissue in your stomach. He may also suggest surgery to free up a compressed or irritated nerve. It’s important to find the appropriate treatment because of the seriousness of this condition. If you experience nausea and vomiting, you should contact a physician immediately.
The Nervous System: How Does It Work?
The nervous system is a complex network of nerves connecting various parts of the body. It consists of two main parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal column to connect to everything else in the body. These nerves send electrical impulses to the various parts of the body to allow them to communicate and perform actions.
There are sensory nerves and motor nerves. The sensory nerves carry messages from the various senses to the brain, while the motor nerves carry messages from the brain to voluntary muscles of the body. The brain also contains neurons: nerve cells that transmit signals. There are two types of neuron: preganglionic and postganglionic.
The preganglionic neuron has a short “walk” to the target organ, while the postganglionic neuron has a long “walk”. The target organ may be another neuron or a muscle cell.
There are two parts of the brain: the forebrain and the hindbrain. The forebrain consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and the cerebral hemispheres. The thalamus controls vision, hearing, and sensory input. The hypothalamus controls several important functions, such as hunger, thirst, body temperature, and the “fight or flight” response.
The epithalamus controls sleeping and waking cycles. The cerebral hemispheres are the largest parts of the brain. They contain the motor and sensory cortexes: the part of the brain that is responsible for voluntary muscle control and senses.
The brain is encased in the skull. It is divided into four separate parts, called ventricles. The two large ventricles are called the cerebral ventricles. The others are called the choroid plexus, lateral ventricle, and third ventricle.
The cerebral ventricles contain cerebrospinal fluid, which acts as a support for the brain and a protection for the spinal cord. The choroid plexus produces the red blood cells that carry oxygen to the brain. The third ventricle is responsible for controlling vital bodily functions, such as breathing and the “fight or flight” response. The lateral ventricles are located next to the hippocampus, which controls memory.
To produce thoughts, images, and sensations, messages are sent to and from various parts of the brain through neurons and neural pathways. The brain is divided into two hemispheres connected by a bundle of neurons called the corpus callosum. The left and right hemispheres are slightly different. The left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body.
Each hemisphere contains mirror-image regions that control functions such as speech and analytical thought. The two hemispheres of the brain constantly send signals to each other, which is why the interpretation of stimuli, such as a song or a scent, is constantly changing.
The spinal cord is a thick stretchy section of nerve tissue that connects the brain to the rest of the body. It transmits messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It also carries messages from the rest of the body back to the brain. All messages have to pass through here.
The Spinal cord is protected by the bones of the spine. The bones of the spine are separated by disks of soft tissue. This gives the spinal cord some flexibility. The spinal cord contains nerve fibers that carry messages to and from the brain.
The spinal cord is divided into 31 distinct regions, which are separated by joints. These are called vertebrae.
A single neuron has three parts: the cell body, or soma; the dendrites; and the axon. The soma contains all of the neuron’s genes. The dendrites receive messages from other neurons. They conduct these messages to the cell body.
The axon carries messages away from the soma. Some axons have small branches called axon terminals that release a neurotransmitter chemical that sends messages to another neuron.
Neurons are connected to each other via synapses. A single neuron can have as many as 15,000 synapses. A single axon may send its signal to as many as 1,000 dendrites. Most of these will be to other neurons, but it is also possible for an axon to send a signal to a muscle or a gland.
A neuron generates most of its own action potentials (nerve signals). However, it does not have the energy to generate them continuously. Most of the time a neuron is resting. When it is sending a signal, it takes a short break before generating the next one.
The brain and spinal cord make up what is called the central nervous system. The other parts are connected to this system. There are two such parts: the sensory nervous system and the motor nervous system. The sensory nervous system collects information from the body’s senses.
The motor nervous system collects information from the brain and sends control signals to the body’s muscles.
The sensory nervous system is made up of the dorsal root ganglion, the spinal cord, and the cranial nerve. The sensory receptors in the skin, muscles, and joints send messages to the dorsal root ganglion. From there, messages are sent to the spinal cord and from there to the brain. The other part of the sensory nervous system is the cranial nerve.
Cranial nerves are like extensions of the spinal cord that connect directly to the brain. They send information from the face and head to the brain.
The motor nervous system sends control signals from the brain to the body’s muscles and glands. The part of the motor nervous system inside the spinal cord is called the anterior grey column. The part outside of the spinal cord is called the peripheral nervous system.
The peripheral nervous system can be divided into two parts: the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls the body’s unconscious actions, such as heart beat, digestion, and breathing. The somatic nervous system controls the body’s voluntary actions, such as movement of the skeletal muscles.
At the spinal cord level, the sensory and motor nervous systems are connected to the brain via extensions of the spinal cord called roots. There are two roots: the dorsal root and the ventral root. The dorsal root connects to the sensory nervous system. The ventral root connects to the motor nervous system.
The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves, which connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body. There are two types of nerves: somatic and autonomic. The somatic nerves control the voluntary muscles, such as those in the arms and legs. The autonomic nerves control the unconscious actions of the body, such as those that control heart beat and digestion.
The central nervous system is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. It interprets sensory information, controls movement, and processes thoughts and feelings. The brain is a mass of gray matter, or neural tissue. It has four major parts–the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the brain stem, and the cerebral cortex.
This diagram shows the human brain and its main parts.
The human brain is made up of gray matter, or neural tissue. This gray matter is arranged in the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the brain stem, and the cerebral cortex.
We will now learn about these parts.
The part of the brain that you are using to read this page is the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is the outside layer of the brain. It controls conscious movement and processes information from the five senses. It also makes up most of what people think of when they think of “the brain.”
The human brain is divided into two halves, or hemispheres. The left and right hemispheres are connected by a thick bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus collosum.
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