How Long Does CBD Stay in Your System?
CBD (cannabidiol) is one of the most popular cannabinoids found in cannabis. It is considered to have many therapeutic benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. However, there are some concerns about its potential adverse effects such as psychosis or cognitive impairment when used at high doses.
The pharmacological activity of CBD is mediated through two main mechanisms: direct inhibition of CB1 receptors and indirect activation of GPR55/GPR59 cannabinoid receptor subtypes. Cannabinoid receptors are G protein coupled receptors that bind ligands called endocannabinoids, which modulate various physiological processes. Endocannabinoids include endogenous substances produced within the body such as anandamide (AEA), 2-AG and others.
They are released from specialized cells in the immune system, gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system.
Endocannabinoids exert their actions via several different pathways, but they all share common features. These include activation of intracellular signaling cascades that result in changes in gene expression, membrane permeability and calcium influx into specific cell types. Activation of these pathways results in changes that ultimately lead to altered cellular functions and ultimately cell death.
Cannabinoid receptors are activated by plant-derived or endogenous cannabinoids such as Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), analogues and many others. The main psychoactive component of marijuana, THC is known to bind with high affinity to CB1 receptors in the brain. CB1 receptors are also found in other parts of the central nervous system, including those that regulate movement.
CB2 receptors are primarily found in the immune system and modulate immune responses. Both CB1 and CB2 receptors are G-protein coupled receptors that bind external cannabinoids with low nanomolar affinity. The activation of cannabinoid receptors results in changes in gene expression, membrane permeability and other effects that ultimately lead to altered cellular functions.
Administration of exogenous cannabinoids can lead to a number of effects. These effects are primarily related to alterations in neurotransmitter release, especially in the brain. Changes in neurotransmitter release results in alteration of various functions such as behavior, cognition, perception, movement and sensory and motivational processes.
There are a few important differences between CB1 and CB2 receptors. These include differences in occurrence, effects and regulation of expression. In general, CB2 receptors are more commonly found in the periphery, and they seem to be specifically located on immune cells and are largely absent from the brain.
In contrast, CB1 receptors are found throughout the brain and mainly regulate cognition and behavior. They are also found in the peripheral organs, mainly involved in controlling movement. At low concentrations, cannabinoids tend to have a regulatory effect; however, at high concentrations, they tend to be excitotoxic.
Blockage of synthesis of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide with a specific antagonist (Rimonabant) was shown to effectively increase appetite and eat more. The fact that this CB1 receptor antagonist increases appetite while CBD decreases appetite suggests that CBD acts on different receptors.
Cannabinoids are known to act via two types of receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2). The activity of these receptors can be linked to the onset of obesity. The type 1 receptor is mainly located in the nervous system and can influence energy consumption and storage.
It is thought that type 2 receptor works opposite to the type 1 receptor. It has been seen that distribution of these receptors in the brain is different between obese and normal mice. In obese mice, there is a higher concentration of the type 2 receptors, suggesting that these are linked to weight loss.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a group of endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters and their receptors involved in several physiological processes. These include mind and body processes such as appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory. The ECS is made up of a series of cannabinoid receptors (CBR) such as CB1 and CB2, endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) and enzymes that break down the endocannabinoids once they are not needed anymore.
The ECS is also involved in neurogenesis (the process of birth of new neurons) and the development of the CNS. The endocannabinoid system has broad effects on several bodily systems and provides a possible therapeutic target for a variety of conditions including: nausea, emesis, anxiety, inflammation, pain and addiction.
Cannabinoids can be classified by their effects on the endocannabinoid system. An agonist causes an action while an antagonist causes the opposite effect. Next, there are the cannabinoids that can bind to a receptor but not cause a physiological response (a.k.a.
a inverse agonist), and those that can bind to the receptor and cause an effect (a.k.a. a neutral antagonist).
Finally, some cannabinoids don’t bind to the receptors at all (a.k.a.
a toxin) and rather bind to other non-cannabinoid receptors causing various effects in the body.
Keep in mind that there are several known cannabinoid receptors. The two best known are CB1 and CB2. These are associated with the effects and regulation of various functions such as appetite, mood and pain perception.
In addition to these, there is also a third type which has only recently been discovered by scientists. This type is known as GPR55 or Class 3 cannabinoid receptor. GPR55 was recently renamed as G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55).
It is thought that this receptor “may be associated with a wide variety of biological effects, including brain and immune system functions and development.”
The endocannabinoid system regulates the body’s natural responses. For example, cannabinoids can alter your memory by controlling the passage of certain chemicals in the brain. These naturally occurring cannabinoid chemicals are called ‘endogenous cannabinoids’ (endocannabinoids).
The cannabinoids THC and CBD, along with other artificial cannabinoids, all fall under the category of cannabinoids. The endogenous cannabinoids that your body produces in response to pain, inflammation and other effects are called ‘phytocannabinoids.’
The above information is just an introduction into how cannabinoids work in the human body. If you would like to find out more about cannabinoid receptors, endogenous cannabinoids and phytocannabinoids, I suggest looking at other articles on this site.
Here is just one example: What Are Phytocannabinoids And What Do They Do?
Recent studies show that CBD causes a decrease in obesity. It does this by affecting the hypothalamus region of the brain. The hypothalamus is the part of the brain that controls hormones that regulate several functions of the body, including metabolism.
Some studies show that CBD causes an increase in serotonin levels. Serotonin has a calming effect on mood. This can help to explain why, in some instances, CBD is used to treat depression.
CBD also increases glutamate levels. Glutamate has several important functions, but one of the most significant is that it serves as a sort of “emergency backup” for memories. This means that it helps your brain to retain important memories, and discard non-essential ones.
An increase in glutamate levels also has an anti-inflammatory effect on the brain.
CBD also affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). The HPA axis is largely responsible for “fight or flight” response of the body. It is also partly responsible for regulating several other hormones.
CBD has an effect on the serotonin receptors of the body. Serotonin can affect our mood and help to alleviate depression.
CBD also affects the limbic system, which is the part of the brain that controls motivation and emotion. It also affects the reticular formation, which is the part of the brain that controls our wake/sleep pattern. This is another explanation for why CBD is effective in treating insomnia and other sleep disorders.
Sources & references used in this article:
CBD Oil for ADHD (childhood and adult) by HDCBDO Work – leaf.expert
Everything You Have Ever Wanted to Know About CBD by HDCBD Work – parentingpod.com
Does CBD Oil Help with Sciatica? Best Products for Sciatic Pain by G Bee, CBD Pure – weednews.co
CBD Oil for Back Pain by CCBDOBU To – leaf.expert
Home> News> This Is How CBD Works To Heal Your Body by TIHCBDW To – CMJ, 2020 – tcmltestsite.com
How Long Does Heroin Stay? by M McTiernan-Gleason, A CHHC, R O’Leary, B JD… – consciouslifenews.com