About Ultrasonic Cavitation:
Ultrasound cavitation is a type of high energy particle acceleration that occurs when sound waves are used to accelerate particles or ions. These particles may be charged or neutral, and they can travel at speeds up to several kilometers per second (km/s). They may collide with other objects and cause damage. Some types of cavitations include shockwaves, sonic booms, and shock wave explosions.
The most common form of acoustic cavitation is caused by the sudden release of pressure from a pressurized container. When a gas such as helium is released into a chamber containing water, it creates an explosion. If the container was filled with air, there would not be enough pressure to explode because the volume of air in contact with the helium would exceed that of the container’s contents. However, if the container contained liquid nitrogen, then there could be sufficient pressure inside to cause an explosion.
There are two main ways that sound waves can create cavitation. One way is through the use of a loudspeaker, which produces a loud noise that causes the gas to expand and become less dense. Another method involves using an electric current to generate heat in a container. A small amount of electricity will produce enough heat to raise the temperature of the surrounding fluid so much that it begins expanding rapidly. When the fluid expands, it forms a partial vacuum and then implodes.
This implosion causes shockwaves, which can accelerate electrons that produce ionized particles, or ions. These ions are then released into liquid nitrogen at speeds of up to 20km/s. This is enough to cause a reaction in the water that produces a very fine powder when the nitrogen comes into contact with it.
The size of the gas bubbles plays an important role in the results of the process. Larger bubbles create larger holes, while smaller ones create tiny holes. The size of these holes is measured using a unit called the Norwood Scale, named after James J. Norwood, who developed the technology for laser ablation in 1978. This unit measures the size in nanometers (nm), and a single nanometer is equal to one-billionth of a meter.
On the Norwood Scale, large bubbles are between 1 and 10nm, while smaller ones are between 10 and 100nm. Most commercial devices produce cavitation with bubbles that are between 50 and 100nm, which works well for many applications.
There are a few different ways in which cavitation occurs, and these methods all depend on the type of gas used. Some types of cavitation are more effective than others.
If the temperature and pressure of the gas are not high enough, then you may need to use a chemical reaction to create cavitation. This can involve mixing nitrous oxide with acetylene, which causes a reduction-oxidation reaction that releases bubbles of nitrogen. Other gases that can cause cavitation through chemical reactions include hydrazine and ammonia.
A third type of cavitation involves the use of electrical discharges or explosives. These are most commonly found in industrial applications. In this case, the cavitation is caused by either a short surge of electricity or the sudden release of pressure from an explosive charge. The first method uses a spark generator to create the necessary electrical discharge.
The second method involves using an explosive charge to rapidly release the pressure inside a container. For this method, you need to know how to calculate the ideal explosive weight so that the pressure inside and outside the container are equal when it is detonated. The container is shaped like a cone with an opening, and the explosive charge is placed at the base of the cone.
The first method can be used to create bubbles using an induction coil to create a large electric current. The second method requires that you place the explosive at a specific distance from the container. When the charge is detonated, it causes a shockwave that passes through the liquid and rapidly decreases the pressure inside the container. As the pressure inside and outside the container are now equal, cavitation occurs.
Cavitation can also be caused by a mechanical reaction. In this case, the gas within the container is compressed to form a bubble, which then collapses as the pressure is reduced. While this does not cause cavitation in the strictest sense, it can still be used as a means of creating tiny bubbles that are effective for cleaning.
Cleaning the Inside of Water Pipes
If you have lead or iron pipes in your house, then water can easily become contaminated with other metals that find their way into the pipes. These include lead and iron, both of which can be dangerous for human consumption.
Cavitation can be used to remove the inside of these pipes, as the tiny bubbles that are created by the process are perfect for grabbing hold of small bits of metal. This process is extremely effective, and can remove almost 100% of the metal in a pipe within one pass.
Cavitation is also great for cleaning other surfaces within pipes, and so it is used in a range of industrial and medical applications. These include cleaning parts of machines (which is known as “de-burring”), as well as cleaning the insides of arteries. This procedure is known as “arterial cleaning.”
Cleaning Other Industrial Parts
The process of cavitation can be used to clean other parts of industry. This includes other types of pipes and tanks. It is also used to clean the inside of ships’ propellers, as well as mucking out septic tanks without the use of toxic chemicals. It can also be used for removing rust from metal parts within a short period of time.
Cavitation is also used for scaling fish. The process involves placing the fish in a container of water and running an electrical charge through it. This process creates bubbles that cause the fish to scale to fall off, leaving you with clean and skinless fish. This process allows fishermen to process large quantities of fish quickly, meaning that they can sell the fish instantly.
Finally, cavitation can be used as a means of removing plaque from teeth. In this case, the process is known as cavitation therapy. A special device known as a suction tip is placed on the teeth. This is connected to a machine, which causes bubbles to form in the space between the tip and tooth. these bubbles cause bits of plaque to fall away from the teeth, and can be used in much the same way as manual scraping to remove debris from within the tooth.
Sources & references used in this article:
Sonoporation: mechanical DNA delivery by ultrasonic cavitation by DL Miller, SV Pislaru, JF Greenleaf – Somatic cell and molecular genetics, 2002 – Springer
A review of in vitro bioeffects of inertial ultrasonic cavitation from a mechanistic perspective by MW Miller, DL Miller, AA Brayman – Ultrasound in medicine & biology, 1996 – Elsevier
Enhancement of ultrasonic cavitation yield by multi-frequency sonication by R Feng, Y Zhao, C Zhu, TJ Mason – Ultrasonics sonochemistry, 2002 – Elsevier
Ultrasonic cavitation at solid surfaces by DG Shchukin, E Skorb, V Belova… – Advanced …, 2011 – Wiley Online Library
Broad prospects for commercial application of the ultrasonic (cavitation) melt treatment of light alloys by GI Eskin – Ultrasonics sonochemistry, 2001 – Elsevier